## Instructions

Pat is the manager of a real estate group that is part of a larger real estate company. Here are the total number of home sales from 2019 for all the agents at the entire company.

4, 6, 10, 4, 8, 10, 4, 3, 2, 4, 3, 6, 0, 4, 2, 8, 4, 6, 8, 2, 5, 3, 5, 4, 12, 4, 6, 9, 10, 8

Pat wants to know if her own real estate group, which has 4 agents (the sample, in this case), has sold more homes than the rest of the company (the population). Your job is to tell me if these four agents (agents A, B, C, and D) differ in number of home sales from the population (the entire company). Remember that you need to calculate the population standard deviation first!

Home Sold per Agent
Agent Number of homes sold in 2019
A 5
B 8
C 7
D 3

Your job is to determine if this sample (The average of agents A, B, C, and D) differ significantly from what you would expect given the population (the rest of the company).

### Attempt History

Attempt Time Score Attempt 1 30 minutes 8 out of 10 *

* Some questions not yet graded

Score for this attempt: 8 out of 10 *
Submitted Mar 27 at 8:11am
This attempt took 30 minutes.

Question 1

0.5 / 0.5 pts
State the null hypothesis

H0: The sample drawn from the population reflects the population, or M = µ

H0: The sample drawn from the population reflects the population, or M ≠ µ

Question 2

0.5 / 0.5 pts
State the alternative hypothesis

H1: The sample drawn from the population reflects the population, or M = µ

H1: The sample drawn from the population does not reflect the population, or M ≠ µ

Question 3

0.5 / 0.5 pts
Indicate the level of risk used in psychology

The level of risk is .05

The level of risk is .01

The level of risk is .5

The level of risk is .1

Question 4

0.5 / 0.5 pts
Determine the best statistical test to use

Z score test

Correlational test

Critical value test

ANOVA

One-sample Z test

T-test

IncorrectQuestion 5

0 / 1 pts
First, you’ll have to calculate the SEM. Use the formula in the book/lecture to calculate the SEM. Put your value below. Remember that you will need to calculate the population standard deviation first (remember to use n rather than n-1 for the population standard deviation calculation). Round your response out to two decimal places. Just put the value as your answer.

Question 6

1 / 1 pts

Now, Compute the test statistic (Use the formulas in the book / lecture to calculate the correct statistic). Which of the following is the correct value? Remember that you will need to calculate the population standard deviation first (remember to use n rather than n-1 for the population standard deviation calculation).

z = .20

z =1.06

z = 0.171

z = 0.05

Question 7

1 / 1 pts
The value needed to reject the null hypothesis (the critical value) is ___________.

3.25

0.05

1.96

2.10

Question 8

1 / 1 pts
Does the obtained value exceed the critical value (that is, is the obtained value larger than the critical value)?

Yes

No

Question 9

1 / 1 pts
Based on your answer to the previous question, the decision is to ____________

Reject the null hypothesis

Fail to reject the null hypothesis

Question 10

Not yet graded / 1 pts
Write up your results as you would see it in a results section of an empirical research paper:

Mean number of household sold by Pat’s company is not more than population

Question 11

1 / 1 pts

NOW, imagine we selected the following individuals (agents E, F, G, and H) from a different group from the same overall the real estate company (from the same population). Does this group significantly differ from the population (entire company)? What is the z value? Round your answer out to two decimal places.

Homes Sold per Agent in 2018
Agent Number of homes sold in 2018
E 9
F 12
G 10
H 4

Question 12

1 / 1 pts
Does the new sample (above) significantly differ from the whole population?

No

Yes

## MGMT 315-02 MID-TERM EXAMINATION

State the question first, then answer the question.

1. What is the definition of organizational behavior and what are the major disciplines that contribute to OB? (Up to 10 pts.)

1. How does workplace discrimination undermine organizational effectiveness? (Up to 10 pts.)

1. Define and discuss Perception. (Up to 10 pts.)

1. What causes job satisfaction, and how do employees respond to job satisfaction? (Up to 10 pts.)

1. Why are the Hawthorne Studies important to the study of Organization behavior? (Up to 10 pts.)

1. What are the characteristics and competencies of a good manager? (Up to 10 pts.)

1. Why is employee job engagement important to managers? (Up to 10 pts.)

1. What are the strengths and weaknesses of group versus individual decision making? (Up to 10 pts.)

1. How do role requirements change in different group or team situations? (Up to 10 pts.)

1. Discuss Moods and Emotions. (Up to 10 pts.)

## The subjective experience of acute or chronic pain – What factors influence how someone experiences pain? How can this knowledge be applied to help quality of life?

TOPIC: The subjective experience of acute or chronic pain – What factors
influence how someone experiences pain? How can this knowledge be
applied to help quality of life?
REQUIREMENTS:
Your research must include at least two journal articles or books. That is,
websites can be very helpful and informative, but your final paper must
include full articles (whether from the Internet or elsewhere) or books on
the topic. Sources should be reputable and consistent with what you
learned in the module as well as other sources. GoogleScholar and PDF
articles from the Internet can be helpful resources. This paper requirement
means that you need to include at least two primary sources in your paper;
articles from the Internet can be included, but they would be in addition to
the two minimum primary sources. Primary sources are firsthand accounts;
thus, they involve the author writing about his or her own work. Primary
sources include books or published journal articles.
Format:
I. Introduction. Introduce your topic and explain why this topic
was of interest to you.
The topic should be explained in full. This section should be at
least three pages long.
III. Application. Discuss your topic’s application component. Be
sure to mention what applications are recommended by others
and what you recommend. You must include your own views
about what the application should be, and clearly state them and
why. This section should be at least one to two pages
IV. Conclusion. Conclude your topic with a wrap-up paragraph.
Some suggestions for a good conclusion: a) end by summarizing
particular application of the information; c) end by suggesting
where future research and discussion should go on this topic

## Qualities of a Nurse Leader

Assignment Description

It is important for nurse leaders to engage with other nurse leaders to understand professional roles; a practice experience is assigned to achieve this end. You will engage with and interview a nurse leader in person, telephone or email if necessary. You may include photos, graphs, or charts.

Choose a nurse leader who holds a leadership nursing position in their organization who have direct reports (they supervise other employees). Examples of this include Director of Nursing, Director, Unit Manager. *You may not be employed in the same facility as your interviewee or shadow during personal work hours* (If special accommodations need to be made, approval by your instructor is required first).
Develop an interview guide before conducting the interview. Identify information that you want to know before the interview and plan clarifying questions. You must include at least one question about technology/informatics.
Conduct an interview regarding their professional role in the organization, and a current health care issue that is of interest to you (ethics, conflict management, budget, staffing, culture of safety, “just culture”, career advancement, quality improvement, etc.). Identify the name of the organization and use names of all involved (no anonymity).
Prepare a written report of the interview.

Sample questions below. Feel free to vary the content of the questions to fit your interview:

(Nurse Manager) Please describe the nursing and inter-professional teams that operate in this facility(Malvern Behavioral Health)/on this unit.
Can you provide an example of a nursing practice that has been changed in the last year based on current best evidence?
What do you consider your biggest challenge?
Why did you choose this job?
What other kinds of nursing/other job did you ever do?
How would you describe your company’s culture?

*Incorporate these as well:

1. As a psychiatric nurse leader, explain what motivates you when the shifts gets tough.

This question will uncover the desire that drives the nurse in all situations that he/she face. Calming agitated patients requires more than training and if the nurse lacks the inner drive, they are likely to get stressed at the workplace.

2. How do you respond to feedback given to you by superiors such as physicians?

This question will show the skills that a nurse possesses for handling professions activities and also show the willingness to consolidate awareness on their strengths and also areas requiring improvement as perceived by superiors. It will be possible to tell how dynamic a nurse is whenever a superior call for redirection for the sake of performance improvement.

3. Give me an example of a time when you provided care for a patient and the family was not satisfied with your care. How did you handle the situation?

This will give show if the nurse is keen to details by explaining their personal perspective and that of the patient’s family as well. It will also shed light on the personality of the nurse, and their readiness to accept responsibility. Additionally, it will show the nurse’s ability to learn lessons by sharing what they would do differently to make it positive.

4. Tell me about a time when you interacted with a hostile patient and how you handled the situation. What was the outcome?

The question will depict if the nurse is procedural by explaining the step by step actions they took. The nurse should be able to explain what hostile means, and how their emotions were affected by the patient’s hostility, since the reaction of the nurse determines the outcome.

5. Explain a time when you offered effective patient education.

This question will show whether the nurse cares to promote patient-centered care, which contribute to ultimate improvement of the patient’s health. Educating patients makes them feel engaged in the care interventions which increases the likelihood of positive outcomes. It also shows if the nurse values continuity of care because educated patients have lesser illnesses related complications.

Assignment Expectations:

Length: 1500 to 1750 words in length

Structure: Include a title page and reference page in APA format as well as a running header. Your essay must include an introduction and a conclusion.

References: Use appropriate APA style in-text citations and references for all resources utilized to answer the questions. Your essay should have at least three scholarly references. Please be sure to cite the interview in APA format.

## Module 3 – SLP Developing and Rewarding Employees

Module 3 – SLP
Developing and Rewarding Employees
Overview
For the SLP assignments in this course, you first discussed the role of HR staff in treating employees as assets in Module 1. You also learned how the various HR laws protect both employees and employers. In Module 2, you learned about the different steps of the talent management process: recruiting, interviewing, selecting, and on-boarding new employees. In Module 3, you will continue to follow two employees with the focus now on employee training and development, performance management, performance appraisals, and performance strategies.

Talent management is a process used to develop members of the organization so that they can perform their jobs at top effectiveness and efficiency. It is a continuous process of improvement and an opportunity to provide human capital with the updates and insight needed to be successful on the job.

Assignment
ACME Packing

Developing and Rewarding Employees

What is employee training and development?
What is performance management?
What is a performance appraisal?
What are some non-traditional performance strategies to increase employee engagement, increase productivity, and improve performance levels?
In Module 3, your SLP assignment will cover the topic of Developing and Rewarding Employees. In this assignment, you will discuss the differences between employee training and development as well as the differences between performance management and performance appraisal. Then, working with your HR manager, you will determine what training and development opportunities are available for the two roles you selected to follow in Module 2. Next, you will discuss your understanding of the difference between performance management and a performance appraisal. Selecting one of the two roles you selected to follow in Module 2, determine what parts of a performance appraisal (at the annual review of your selection) should be required and explain why. Last, you will discuss the use of non-traditional performance strategies you will use to increase employee engagement, increase productivity, and improve the performance level of the second employee you hired in Module 2 at ACME Packing.

SLP Assignment

Your paper for this assignment will be 2-3 pages (which means not less than two full pages) that cover the following four topics:

Employee training and development
Performance management
Performance appraisal

Submit the assignment to the SLP 3 Dropbox by the due date and time for Module 3 assignments.

SLP Assignment Expectations
Your submission will be assessed on the criteria found in the grading rubric for this assignment:

Meets assignment requirements
Critical thinking
Writing and assignment organization
Use of sources and mechanics
Timeliness of assignment

## Dr. Marquez is a dentist with a well-practice in North York,Toronto, Ontario. She has sought your advice regarding the deductibility/tax ability of the following expenditures and income items identified during the current taxation year

Question 1

Dr. Marquez is a dentist with a well-practice in North York,Toronto, Ontario. She has sought y our advice regarding the deductibility/taxability of the following expenditures and income items identified during the current taxation year:

1. Insurance payments Included a \$1,650 premium for coverage of her office and contents, \$3,800 for malpractice coverage, and \$2,100 in life insurance premiums.
2. Payments were made to a collection agency in the amount of \$1,375 for assistance in collecting past due amounts from patients.
3. Contributions of \$1,000 were made to various registered charities.
4. Dr. Marquez paid a total of \$21,0 00 to her husband for his services a s a full-time bookkeeper and receptionist.
5. A total of \$5,300 was spent to attend a dental convention in Chicago, Illinois. Dr. Marquez was accompanied by her husband and \$1,750 of the total cost of the trip relates directly to him.
6. Anamountof \$1,200 was paid for membership in a racquets club. In addition, \$1,600 was spent for court time, approximately 40 percent of which was for time spent playing with patients.
7. Dr. Marquez paid \$1,800 in legal and accounting fees. These fees related to objecting to a personal income tax reassesment fora previous tax year. The objection was not successful and, as a consequence, Dr. Marquez was required to pay additional taxes of \$17,900, plus \$1,710 in interest on the late payments.
8. Dr. Marquez purchased the building in which her practice is located in 2005. Her practice uses 50 percent of the floor space in the building and, on January 1, 2019 the Class 1 UCC for the building is \$575,000.
9. Dr. Marquez’ late father was an amateur painter who didn’t sell a single painting while he was alive. He gave Dr. Marquez a number of his paintings over the years. Shortly after his death, he was “discovered” and his paintings were in demand. During 2019, she sold two of his large paintings for \$10,000 each. The electrician doing the renovations in the building fell in love with one of his other paintings. The electrician offered to trade \$10,000 in services for it and Dr. Marquez accepted the offer.
10. During the year, Dr. Marquez spent \$3,300 purchasing provincial lottery tickets.

Required: Advise Dr. Marquez with respect to the deductibility/taxability of the preceding expenditures and income in the calculation of Net Income for Tax Purposes. Explain your position on each expenditure or income item.

## Drawing from the readings for this week, how does social class shape educational experiences in the United States (Jean Anyon’s piece) and in Britain (Diane Reay)? What are the similarities? The differences?

Question: Drawing from the readings for this week, how does social class shape educational experiences in the United States (Jean Anyon’s piece) and in Britain (Diane Reay)? What are the similarities? The differences?

My response for a Discussion Prompt

Both articles had different ways of identifying how social class is created and divided by the middle-class and the working-class. Both authors explained it start from the educational system and also how education is accustomed to the different social class students. The article “Social Class And School Knowledge.” by Jean Anyon gave a different type of schoolings and education to the separate social class students. Jean Anyon was able to prove the capital, and social status of parents paid a significant role in their children’s education. Jean Anyon observed and interviewed students from different schools and mentioned that middle-class school has a better learning environment, and better teachers verse the working class.

The second article, “Finding or Losing yourself?: working-class relationship to education.” by Diane Reay was different because her piece was based on college education and how it affects the working-class students verse the middle-class students. According to Diane Reay, working-class students face challenges in how they fit in higher education and with the middle-class students. The middle-students do not meet the same problems. Higher education, according to Reay, can be the source in which the middle-class and working-class exist in society. Because how the educational system works better the middle-class students, whose parents have the capital and social class.

I believe the educational system provide better education to the economic privilege students, and these students have an excellent opportunity to succeed and maintain their social class. Unfortunately, the educational system does not do the same for the working-class students, who are unable to have an equal learning opportunity.

## One Side of the Team to the Other

Compose a 250-500 word essay describing your reasons for undertaking study in nursing at The George Washington University, your academic objectives, career goals, and related qualifications. Your essay should address Why nursing? Why now? Why GW?

## World CIV Topic between 1600-1950

World civilization is a term that has been used broadly to evaluate and assess the growth of the earliest beginning to the current state. The first recorded civilization in the world was in Mesopotamia in the 4th millennium BC. It is the first known and sophisticated civilization that was first to develop city-states (Berger, Pg. 66). In these cities, the first known that any forms of writing or the cuneiform scripts emerged at around 3000 BCE. Since then, many civilizations have risen and fallen with the early six greatest civilizations being Mesopotamia, Indus Valley in present-day India, Andean Civilization of South America where the Inca people emerged and flourished, Egyptian Civilization in modern-day Egypt where a sophisticated social, economic, and political civilization emerged and thrived for hundreds of years, the Mesoamerica, and Huang Ho river region in present-day China (Scarre).

The civilizations are believed to have arisen independently and controlled different trade routes, had different social and religious beliefs, and some of the landmarks associated with these civilizations are still present, depicting a complex and integrated culture of the past. Civilizations are further defined using social, political, and economic characteristics, which include domestication, centralization, and culturally ingrained progress ideologies, monumental architecture, among other ideologies (Scarre). The essay will be discussing several factors that are associated with world civilization between 1600 and 1950, which affected the civilizations and any other aspect that can be attributed to it between the times.

World Civilization between 1600 and 1700

The period is synonymous with the 17th century and has been known as one of the most intriguing moments in the history of civilization. There were so many things that were happening in the century, and a lot has been recorded. In 1601 the Dutch defeated Portuguese to have control of the Spice archipelago or the Indonesian islands. It was also during this period that the Dutch government gave East India Company the monopoly to lead trade all over Asia (McCloskey, Pg. 63). Notably, during this time, from 1500-1800, the rise of the western empire dominated the records. This was the rise of Western Europe, which had previously suffered invasions from Africa, non-parts of Western Europe, and Asia. By this time, the western took advantage of its newly developed technologies and sailed to new areas.

The Americas were deeply affected by the invasion of the Europeans due to conquests, the introduction of new technologies, and also the introduction of rare sicknesses in their lives. By1605, the British army helped the Iranian military in defeating the Ottomans army, which was very significant. At this time, most of the established countries and civilizations were fighting over the control of the Americas and Asia. This was intense, and many European powers were in an ever raging war that would change the history of the world forever. For example, the Dutch finished their domination of the Indian ocean and controlled most of the trade routes in the region and were now established a strong outpost in the western coast of the country (Irving-Stonebraker). In 1610, Henry, the fourth of France, who was a very progressive king and also religious tolerant, was assassinated by Francois Ravaillac, who was highly unreligious and too unbalanced. Ravaillac was arrested and questioned on why he planned the killing of Henry but was highly unstable. He believed that his hallucinations were religious beliefs that directed him to assassinate the King in the streets of Paris.

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During this time, many scientists around the globe and particularly in Europe, and they had increased the space observations and come up with the theories surrounding the space. For example, in 1611, Galileo had tried to prove that the earth revolved the sun and not the vice versa as it was believed, but his claims were rebuffed. In terms of Indian Ocean dominance, Britain had reduced the influence Portugal had on the ocean by 1612 through fighting and winning the naval war at Surat India (Irving-Stonebraker). The Dutch arrived at the island of Timur, which had been claimed by Portugal and further reduced the influence Portugal had. At around that time, the first time barrel of cured tobacco had been brought in England from a colony in Virginia. Shakespeare died in 1616, and so did Tokugawa Ieyasu, the primary founder, and leader of Tokugawa Shogunate of Japan.

Due to the increased shipment of cured tobacco from Virginia to England, most of the English citizens had become typical smokers, which the then king, King James, described as loathsome and harmful to the brain and also dangerous to the lungs of the smokers. At the start of 1619, the African slave trade had started, and many Africans were being transported to replace other Africans who had died in West Indies since the sugar industry was killing them fast that they were being replaced through procreation. In 1659, the Khoikhoi of South Africa defended themselves against the Dutch, who had attempted to grab their grazing lands. In conclusion, the 17th-century civilizations were outdoing each other in a number of ways, with the colonization of new properties and technology being some of the main areas they were focusing on.

World Civilization between 1700 and 1800

During the 18th century, the world experienced tremendous changes that shaped the world forever. Many people, particularly in Western Europe, experienced what is known as the industrial revolution during this period that developed the way people did business and also produced goods and services. There were seven years of intense war between Britain and other countries where together with Prussia, Britain won the war against France, Russia, Spain, and Austria. France lost the battle and all it’s North American colonies, whereas Spain gave out Florida in exchange for Cuba by the British.

During this period, Samuel Johnson established the first US postal services in 1755 that continued to serve postal services across different areas in the country. It was during this era that there was the declaration of US independence and was approved in July 4th, 1776. The continental congress that made the announcement was made up of members from different American colonies who sought for self-governance. Before independence, the American Revolution started in concord and Lexington, Massachusetts, the revolution which brought the onset of revolution in the country. During this time, the European countries were struggling to establish dominance in the new world, dominated by countries like England, that boosted for highly skilled human resources and technology that was beyond other countries at the time. This ensured that they were able to sail for long distances with large fleets, which made them outdo many of their competitors.

Possibly, the industrial revolution is what marked this period of human civilization more. Industrial revolution or the first industrial revolution was the transition from primitive farming and agricultural-based production to new manufacturing processes in England and also in the United States. The period lasted between 1760 to around 1820 to 1840 (Eissa). The production moved from small shops to large factories where the shift brought about people moving away from rural areas to large cities so that they can work in factories. The revolution brought about new ideologies to do work, new modes of transportation, and a very different way of living among the people. Many of the first innovations that brought about the change happened in Great Britain and were in the textile industry. The changes were aided by the fact that Britain had a lot of coal, which enabled them to power machines and other automobiles in the country. Consequently, the era saw intensive slave trade on a global scale. British colonies lacked slaves in the USA and had to import them from Africa. The strategies brought about a change in how people viewed the humanity, with many black slaves being forced to work for their masters with no pay.

The first revolution happened and stayed for around 100 years between the late 1700 to mid-1800s. This was characterized by a change in the textile industry and also the moving of production from home and small scale to large factories. During the period, steam-powered engines and cotton gin were an integral part of the change that ensured the process was a success. In the USA, the change occurred mainly in the New England and northeast regions and brought about numerous cultural differences. Cities grew large and were un-sanitized were many poor workers lived in slums and congested areas. The transport system changed, and people stopped moving by horses and boats and started utilizing large steam engines, rails, steamboats, and automobiles, mainly in the second revolution (Reid). The negative part of the revolution was the poor working conditions in these factories, where few laws protected workers in the factories. Child labor was a common practice, and people had to work for long in order to achieve daily wages (Eissa).

World Civilization between 1800 and 1900

The era is also called the 19th century and started and is highly characterized by increased human exploration to the new world and even to Africa. There was a lot of social changes all over the globe with the slave trade and slavery in the United States and other countries being abolished, the first and also the second industrial revolutions that overlapped from the 18th to the 20th century leading to a massive change of the production process, voyaging, and even livelihood. The European powers brought about much control in many African, Asian, and South Asian states into an era of colonialism. Some of the renowned empires of the period include the Roman, the Spanish, Zulu of South Africa, First French, and Mughal empires that changed the way civilization did things.

Through these empires, more durable and highly advanced empires came into life. They included the German empire that replaced what was of Holy Roman Empire, the British empire that established colonial rule across much of continental Africa and other Asian countries, The Russian empire that saw much of the central and other countries in Asia fall under its jurisdiction, and the United States Empire where more states continued to join the alliance, forming a more robust nation that we know today (Jiang, Pg. 2323). When the French empire was defeated during the Napoleonic wars, both British and Russian empires became highly unchallenged and established dominance over other countries at that time. For example, the Russian powers and empire expanded to other areas of southern Asia and the Caucasus.

Many of the French allies that remained in the subcontinent of India, including much of Mysore kingdom and Nawabs of Bengal and others suffered a massive loss, and although their rebellion against British India Company led to the demolition of the company in the country, India was directly ruled by the British, through the British crown by establishing what was known as British Raj. During the first half of the 19th century, the British Empire increased, establishing new dominance in countries like Canada, Australia, the densely populated India, and also in the continent of Africa, which was highly unexplored at that time. Interestingly, the British Empire had established control over a fifth of the world land area and around one-quarter of the world’s population, making it one of the largest empires to ever rise in the planet.

In terms of development and advancement in medicine, the era saw massive changes that continue to impact our lives today. Science was born as a profession, and the term scientist was adapted in 1833 by a scholar by the name William Whewell, replacing the term philosopher. Other influential ideas were those of Charles Darwin, the origin of humankind, which introduced the concept of natural selection through evolution. There was a lot of invention of different things ranging from science to astronomy and beyond. For example, aspirin was patented in the year 1889 and revolutionized the area of medicine. Louis Pasteur might be the most renowned scientist of the era due to his creation vaccine ever known to man when he came up with a vaccine against rabies (Rappuoli, Pg 8) He isolated it from a young boy that had disease through multiple bites from a rabid dog. Finally, the 19th century witnessed much of the changes that shaped world civilization and history forever. These changes and inventions have continued to influence how humans have continued to survive in the planet to date.

World Civilization between 1900 and 1950

During the first half of the 20th century, much of the changes that occurred marked significant political, social, and economic changes in the world. To put that into perspective, there were two world wars in the half-century, there was the cold war, the start of United States war, and the collapse of the Soviet Union. Particularly impressive is the fact that many nations in Africa were colonized by British powers who exploited their resources, used gun power and slaves to accomplish their missions, and also ensured that these African countries were submissive to the rules (Maxwell, Pg. 5). Most African countries formed rebellions against the European powers, which saw an end to the colonization of many nations before the half-century ended. However, two countries, Ethiopia and Liberia, did not experience colonization due to rebellion and the fact that the USA backed the latter due to the establishment of a free state by slaves who had decided to move back to Africa.

Even though the half-century was filed with a lot of wars and crimes against humanity, a lot of innovation, particularly in Europe, also happened during this time. The era was ushered by the Wright brothers who innovated the first-ever airplane in the United States. The country also mesmerized the world through several intriguing innovations of the past century. During the world wars, the use of tanks as combat machinery was used for the first time, and the use of an atomic bomb in the second war, both innovated by the US, showed that the country was able to respond to urgent and also important military stimuli (Jiang). Although human civilization had continued to use different principles about electricity in the 19th century, much of the large scale production of power happened in the 20th century with the enormous expansion of electricity generation and also distribution. On the onset of 1950, the Korean peninsula witnessed an intensive war, The Korean War, which lasted for about three years. The war saw the Soviet backed North Korea attack the pro-west South Korea and ended with establishment of a demilitarized zone which separated the north and the south. Interestingly, the zone is one of the most militarized zone in the world, with soldiers from the north guarding against any north Korean trying to run to the south.

Conclusion

Humans have continued to live in the world from around 200,000 years ago, according to the first fossils of the anatomically modern human being found in Omo Valley, Ethiopia. From as early as 3000 BC, human civilizations had already started to establish dominance in the world, with much of the earliest civilizations changing the concept of both social and political advancement beyond simple living. Empires such as the Egyptians and the Inca established dominance in different continents, and their effects is still felt to date. From 1600 to 1950, or from the 17th to the mid-20th century, most changes in human civilization was diverse and along many fields and ranged from different aspects. Most empires were establishing dominance across a vast land and sea area, as witnessed by the British Empire, which established dominance in many parts of the world. The geopolitical aspect of the civilizations in between this period cannot be underestimated as this was one of the most diverse periods in world politics. The period also saw a massive boom in innovations from the world of medicine, engineering, manufacturing, and other essential fields with changes that have continued to shape our lives to date. World civilizations from the 1600 century has witnessed some of the intense wars in the making of USA, like the revolution war, and also wars that shaped the history of the world, like the first and second world wars. The period covered in the text was crucial for the development and progress of the globe and was marked by imperative events from one time to another.

References

Berger, Peter L. “The desecularization of the world: A global overview.” The New Sociology of Knowledge (2017): 61-76.

Eissa, Nada Sadeq, and Assist Prof Dr Berna KÖSEOĞLU. The Industrial Revolution. 2019.

Irving-Stonebraker, Sarah. “From Eden to savagery and civilization: British colonialism and humanity in the development of natural history, ca. 1600–1840.” History of the Human Sciences 32.4 (2019): 63-79.

Jiang, Weijie. “The Analysis of the Multi-cultural Fusion of the American Cities under the Perspective of the Ecological Civilization.” Ekoloji 28.108 (2019): 2321-2325.

Maxwell, Nicholas. “Learning About the Universe and Learning How to Create Civilization.” Science and Enlightenment (2019): 1-7.

McCloskey, Deirdre Nansen. “It was ideas and ideologies, not interests or institutions, which changed in Northwestern Europe, 1600–1848.” Journal of evolutionary economics 25.1 (2015): 57-68.

Rappuoli, Rino, Angela Santoni, and Alberto Mantovani. “Vaccines: An achievement of civilization, a human right, our health insurance for the future.” Journal of Experimental Medicine 216.1 (2019): 7-9.

Reid, Richard J. A history of modern Africa: 1800 to the present. John Wiley & Sons, 2020.

Scarre, Chris, and Brian M. Fagan. Ancient civilizations. Routledge, 2016.

## Role Played by Genetics on Alcoholic Children

How Genetics Play a Role on Alcoholic Children

Abstract

Alcoholism is perceived to be a complex genetic disease that is brought forth by distinct genes that perpetuate the vulnerability. Therefore, particular genes of alcohol metabolism that have been identified include the ALDH2 and ADH1B (Flint, Greenspan, & Kendler, 2020). The two have proven to have a significant contribution to the risk of alcoholism. As such, one can argue that individuals possessing these genes have an increased urge for alcohol and have the highest possibility of carrying it across their generations. Kids born of parents with these genes are less likely to quit alcohol as their desire for alcohol is quite high and constant. They thus develop a maladaptive pattern of excessive drinking accompanied by the serious problems associated with the behavior (Flint, Greenspan, & Kendler, 2020). Moreover, alcohol has been noted to run across lineages, particularly when one draws evidence from a source like the adoption studies. Therefore, studies on adoption reveal that children are less likely to take up alcoholism from their adoptive parents than their biological parents.

Introduction

Consumption of alcohol is a habit that is distributed across the globe. However, its the rate of consumption that distinguishes consumers. Additionally, the recommended amount of consumption cuts across gender lines. Therefore, an average female consumer of alcohol ought to not exceed a drink per day. On the other hand, males should not exceed two drinks per day. Observation of the average gauges of drinking promotes cardiovascular health. However, exceeding these levels results in alcoholism (Flint, Greenspan, & Kendler, 2020). Dependence on alcohol has been defined by meeting criteria such as prompting one to fail to attend to their normal obligation, continuous dangerous use, continued regardless of the social problems that it has caused, levels of tolerance shown by a user, intake of drugs to avoid withdrawal, drinking beyond expectations, unsuccessful trials to quit, taking too much time in alcoholic deals, affected social relationships as well as excessive craving for alcohol ((Barnow, 2002). The behavior depicted by an individual indicates their level of addiction to alcoholism.

Despite the rate of alcohol intake being attributed to peer influence and stress, family ties have, over time, been attributed to individual resistance to quitting alcohol. As a result of addiction to alcohol, some disorders have been experienced in families to the extent of cutting across generations (Flint, Greenspan, & Kendler, 2020). The aspect can thus be said to be easily deduced upon the study of inheritance and variations among living organisms. Diseases such as liver cirrhosis, alcoholic pancreatitis, cardiovascular diseases, breast cancer, diabetes, liver cancer, cancer of the upper GI as well as fetal alcohol syndrome are inevitable in generations that are prone to alcohol abuse (Begleiter, & Kissin, 1995). Since men tend to drink more heavily than their female counterparts, they are highly susceptible to the diseases triggered by high consumption of alcohol. Therefore, they are at a higher risk of succumbing to these diseases than women. The paper seeks to establish the relationship of alcoholism in children concerning their genetic makeup (Barnow, 2002).

Literature review

The genes ALDH2 and ADH1B are inherently responsible for the replication of the alcoholic habits to generations from parents (Flint, Greenspan, & Kendler, 2020). Therefore, children born of such parents depict a reduced resistance to the risk of alcoholism. Other genes that facilitate the transmission of the vulnerability of alcohol to children include GABRA2, AUTS2, CHRM2, as well as the KCNJ6 (Flint, Greenspan, & Kendler, 2020). Therefore, alcoholism can be termed as a genetic disease. Despite its ability to run in families, several evidences classify it as a genetically transmissible behavior. Such include the studies on adoption, which give an implication that alcoholic adoptive parents are not likely to carry forward the risk, unlike in the case of a biological relationship (Barnow, 2002).

Additionally, twin studies in the United States of America indicate that an approximation of between forty-five to sixty percent of the spread of the risk can be attributed to genetic factors (Flint, Greenspan, & Kendler, 2020).  The study has also prompted an experiment where rats and mice were bred in different settings. The experiment was aimed at testing for preference for alcohol, dependence as well as their sensitivity to withdrawal. As a result, the outcomes were facilitated by their genetic composition as different genes are phenotypically distinct. Therefore, the study confirmed the overwhelming evidence that differences in genetic makeup have an active contribution to the risk of dependence on alcohol.

Moreover, there is no specific gene that is responsible for alcoholism; thus, they only play the predisposing role (Barnow, 2002). Children taking up alcohol dependence from parents are facilitated by the favorability of the social factors as well as the surroundings. Therefore the factors associated with genetic makeup not only determine whether or not one will be reliant on alcohol but also their vulnerability to diseases that emerge from addiction to alcohol. Again, the amount of alcohol per day consumed by an individual is also influenced by genetic factors (Flint, Greenspan, & Kendler, 2020).  When individuals of the same family that demonstrated dependence on alcohol are randomly selected, they are likely to depict variants that influence the risk of alcohol dependence. Linkage studies can show the extensive regions of the genome that are responsible for the risk of alcoholism.

In the case whereby an individual has more than one relative who has an addition of either alcohol and other substances, one might inherit the gene that puts them to the risk of contracting the disorder. Thus, the immediate family members are at a higher risk of turning into addicts than individuals living around the addicts and lack a blood relation. However, if one is said to be highly vulnerable to risk, it does not imply that they must take up the habit (Bechtel, 2012). The scenario implies that one can control their urge to indulge in the behavior as they cannot control their genetic makeup. As such, for individuals who are highly predisposed to alcoholism effective measures such as keeping healthy friendships, acknowledging that they are at risk and work against it, seeking relevant counseling, comprehending the symptoms brought about by addiction as well as working towards strengthening family ties.

Additionally, highly predisposed and have experienced the signs of the disorder are advised to seek relevant treatment with the immediate effect. The early stages of the signs would be addressed by subjecting an individual to effective counseling (Bechtel, 2012). The initiative will play a significant role in helping the predisposed individual from coping with the likely influences in their society and environment, which would promote their indulgence in alcohol dependence.

Research, findings, and opinions.

According to Skomorowski, ‘An examination of the relationship between coping with stress and alcoholism in adult children of alcoholics,’ children that are genetically inclined to alcoholism have their environment predisposing in the sense that, alcohol is at their disposal, peer influence is at its peak, and violence is the order of the day and sexual and physical abuse. As such, parental protection is recommended for children that have a genetic susceptibility to alcoholism (Skomorowski, n.d.). Again, initiatives that would prove worthwhile for these kids would be, keeping alcohol out of their reach, improved social skills, and improved parental supervision, teaching children to avoid drugs as well as constantly reminding them of the adverse impacts of alcoholism to both the individual and the society. Hereditary behavior by children is thus seen to interact with the environment to give rise to a pattern of decision making that highly influenced by the environment (Skomorowski, n.d.). As such, for children who are more sensitive to stress, their ability to cope with unhealthy relationships that usher them into alcohol misuse is low. Such children ought to be advised on the need to effectively cope with traumatizing events as they are inevitable (Skomorowski, n.d.). They thus need to understand that self- medication on alcohol complicates the situation rather than offering a long-term solution to the problem. However, children with a high susceptibility to alcohol abuse are driven by non-hereditary factors such as the society and environment to develop their dependence on alcohol.

According to Wilhelmsen (2002), ‘Identification of Alcoholism Susceptibility Genes,’ Biochemical markers have been employed to explain the predisposition to alcoholism made use of closely and newly matured platelets that have been released and possessive high levels of MAO (Maomine Oxidase) activity. Additionally, the markers would include products of the gene and yield favorable results (Flint, Greenspan, & Kendler, 2020). The possible sources of variation act as hindrances to the process of evaluation of genetic markers in alcoholics. Again, they are crucial in demonstrating the need for using twins in the study like FHN and FHP. In a particular study, a small population of FHN and FHP men was used (Flint, Greenspan, & Kendler, 2020). The results obtained indicated a trend of reduced activity of platelet Maomine Oxidase in the group with alcoholic members of the same family. Again, when alcohol subjects were divided into type one and two, type two alcoholics was found to have a relatedly lower amount of platelets than type one alcoholics (Wilhelmsen, 2002). An additional study revealed that teenage boys who used to abuse a wide range of drugs and had distinct codes of behavior were found to exhibit type two alcoholism alongside a low platelet Maomine Oxidase activity.

Whihelmsem (2002), argues that information regarding biochemical markers calls for a prudent selection of subjects. However, combining the data with other relevant studies will play a significant role in yielding crucial information on the locus of the genetic material responsible for the vulnerability of children to alcoholism. Therefore, it is clear that an increase in the rates of alcohol dependence is triggered by the interplay of factors that may cause avoidance of alcohol and the positive predisposing factors. As a result, the interaction of the two factors causes an individual to cope with the risks exposing them to alcoholism (Wilhelmsen, 2002). Research on effective treatment and mitigation of alcoholic behavior should be initiated in a bid to reduce the vulnerability of children. Again, alcoholism ought not to either be stigmatized or perceived as an aspect of moral decadence.

Theories

Psychoanalytic theory can be employed to explain the genetic influence of alcoholism in children. The theory consists of ego, superego as well as id as its components. Super ego brings responsible for thoughts and conscience. The ego brings together the id and super ego while the id can be perceived as impulsive, instinctive, and childlike. The super ego controls the impulses of the id as it knows right from wrong. The theory explains the driving force as anxiety, which is the resultant feeling when one depends on defense mechanisms like denial, projection, rationalization as well as regression. Substance abusers are always in denial of the idea that they consume large quantities of drugs (Bower, 2005). Therefore, substance abuse is identified by the theory as a defense against anxiety. As such, addicts use alcohol and other drugs to cope with anxiety from stressing factors such as loneliness and emotional instability. For instance, some individuals spend their entire day watching Tv, and on the bed to the extent of avoiding essential duties tens to abuse alcohol in a bid to brighten up their day and cope with rejection. As a result, the traits of overprotection may be taken up by children prompting them to be dependents on alcohol (Bower, 2005). In a case where a parent is overprotective, the id of the child is prompted to resolve into excessive drinking as a strategy of coping with the parent’s nature. Such situations cause children to become heavy drinkers who depict all the aspects of alcohol dependence, such as irresponsibility, laxity, and diseases that come along with it.

Implicit personality theory can seek to explain how genetics plays a role in alcoholic children. The theory implies that a person’s notions regarding their personality traits have a likelihood of co-occurring in people. The theory gives an inference to a perception of the society on other people. For instance, when the perceiver sees one walking upright and unbothered by the actions of others, then the inference would be that person is confident. Additionally, when the perceiver sees an individual demonstrate a lot of stamina in their way of executing duties, the implication would be that the person is hardworking (Schneider, 2005).  In most instances, implicit personality theories depict social judgment as additional traits are overshadowed by one visible aspect. Therefore, one is perceived to be of good character if they display a few good ones.

On the other hand, if one displays a few bad characters, they are categorized as disrespectful and dishonest. The theory may be applied in genetics to demonstrate that parents are a reflection of their children. As such, perceivers may identify the drinking habits of parents and conclude that their children will be alcohol dependents in the future (Schneider, 2005). On the flip side of the issue, when children are found indulging in misuse of drugs such as alcohol, perceivers may apply the implicit personality theory to argue that they have borrowed the habit from either their parents or guardians.

Analysis

The concept of genetics as responsible for alcoholism in children is undeniably a debatable topic. One might conclude from the fact that families that have relatives who show dependence on alcohol in large numbers and still give rise to generations of alcohol dependents. However, the idea lacks a scientific validation as there is no specific gene responsible for alcoholism. Therefore, the only concept that supports the topic is that predisposing factors are genetically inherited. As such, it is the genetic makeup of relatives that determine their vulnerability to alcohol dependence (Bechtel, 2012).  The findings of the topic indicate that predisposing factors such as peer group, availability of alcohol, inadequate follow up by parents as well as individual desire to try out things may prompt an individual into developing alcohol dependence. However, I think that despite children growing up in an environment that increases their vulnerability to drugs, parents can avert the situation by keenly monitoring their activities. As such, the role of the parent of instilling good morals to the children and ensuring that they are followed forms the baseline of my counter-argument.

Additionally, derived from scholars are significantly convincing as they explain the trend of alcohol dependence alongside their causes. Therefore, these arguments can be perceived as logical (Bechtel, 2012). The theories seeking to explain the topic are also debatable, particularly the Implicit Personality theory. The theory suffers a shortcoming of random deductions as well as assumptions leaving room for extra questioning of their validity. For the research studies involving mice and their ability to learn movement in the maze, it can be perceived as rigorous as it does not give alterations to the aspects and roles of dopamine.

Conclusion

In conclusion, family studies have pointed out the absence of genetic contribution to dependence on alcohol but inherent predisposing factors. However, some genes determine the vulnerability of children born of alcoholics to depend on alcohol in their later lives. The identified predisposing genes are said to be alcohol metabolizing. The genes play a significant role in influencing the risk of children to alcohol reliance like their parents (Ammerman, & Hersen, 1990). The studies relating to the association between alcohol and genetic makeup has been affected by limited studies on alcoholic phenotypes. As a result, the alcohol research community has sought to integrate various aspects to come up with the appropriate relationship between the two.

Additionally, the studies will also facilitate one to comprehend the underlying factors associated with alcohol dependence and likely measures of mitigating them (Jung, 2009). Again, the theories of Implicit personality and psychoanalysis have played a significant role in pointing out the relation of genetics to alcoholism in children. The possible responses to the topic would be that the hereditary material of the parent determines the rate at which the children can resist or give in into the problem of alcohol dependence. The additional research that would be helpful for this topic would be studying the genetic composition responsible for individual behavior. Again, research on the chances of a child inheriting particular predisposing aspects would be relevant to the study. The research would be crucial in explaining why some children born in alcohol-dependent families are disgusted by the drug despite their genetic susceptibility (Jung, 2009). The implication of the topic to its possible answers is that the genes play a predisposing role and not the actual role of hereditary alcohol dependence.

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References

Ammerman, R., & Hersen, M. (1990). Children at Risk. CA: Springer Science & Business Media