What poses the most danger to teams: groupthink or mismanaged agreement?


I believe that mismanaged agreement is more dangerous to teams than groupthink because of its tendency to create resentment among group members. If there was no drive to working on an operation from all members (when it was assumed all members were motivated) then the output would be lackluster and without passion than compared to an operation that was properly conducted with the correct drive and motivation. There is also the instance where one agreeing with another’s idea (when in reality they did not) can cause a lack of motivation from the individual and not putting in their full potential into the result (Johnson, 2018, p. 238).

Instead of voicing their opinion and disagreement, they could be putting in half the effort they should and wasting time. They would be hesitant to voice their thoughts the longer they waited and just continue to put out mediocre results resulting in the escalation of commitment. I believe groups can exert more control the behavior of their members more than managers if there is effecting communication among the members and less manager presence in the operation.

Gathering and sharing information as a leader draws a fine line between leader and employee. Information management can be used to effectively quell discord on a team or department or be used to manage how to handle future information coming to light. Ethically, leaders should be siding on the side of their employees, sharing the information that will best help them in their situation with information solely staying with those that need to hear it. Leaders can be incompetent in different ways but still remain ethical.

For example, a leader could be failing to motivate and support their team by themselves but could combat that by sharing the power among high performing employees to help bring members of the team and their morale to a higher standard. Ethical leaders can be more effective in a way that they are staying transparent with their team. By being honest and effectively communicating, there can be a foundation of trust built among leader and employees to work together into achieving positive results.


Johnson, C. E., (2018). Organizational Ethics: A Practical Approach (4th ed). pg. 238.




Top of Form

Group Ethics:

  • What poses the most danger to teams:  groupthink or mismanaged agreement?  

Per Jerry Harvey, failure to manage agreement is the most danger to teams. The reason that this is the most danger is because “when organizations blunder into the Abilene Paradox, they take actions in contradiction to what they really want to do and therefore defeat the very purposes they are trying to achieve.” (Johnson, 2019, p. 242, para 2) Further, there is a possibility that “These actions generate lots of anger and irritation, and participants blame each other for the group’s failures.” (Johnson, 2019, p. 242, para 3)

  • How do you recognize when your group is caught in the escalation of commitment? 

There are several notable items that suggests that a group is caught in the escalation of commitment. Of them are recognizing that the group is spending too much of their time on a project that is not making strides forward. Additionally, when more resources are being used to keep the project alive. Lastly, if feedback that is not supportive of the project as it stands is ignored, this can indicate that the group is caught in escalation of commitment. (Johnson, 2019, p. 244)

  • Do you think that groups can exert more control over the behavior of members than managers do?

Groups definitely can exert more control over the behavior of members than managers. Johnson makes note that this would be displayed through “concertive control” The reason this can transpire is due to a “combination of high power and low visibility” (p. 246, para. 3) I have a perfect example of this that has been happening in my organization. The leadership hierarchy is in the following order: Director of HHSA, Director of Human Services, Deputy Director of Human Services, Division Managers of TulareWorks, Unit Managers-CalWorks, and Program Specialists-CalWorks. For years the Program Specialists have had their own meetings absent Managers.

The meeting was designed so that Office and Policy specialists discuss legislative changes in programs, protocols, practices and processes. They are charged with brainstorming on changes needed to move things along, which they then provide recommendations to Unit Managers who make the ultimate decision. The group is called PPMC, and it has been known that there is dysfunction of this group due to the strong personalities that dominate the meetings and the groups and the view that Policy Specialists are more valuable than Office Specialists.

This often leads to a lack of listening to differing opinions and has caused many in the group to shut down and not participate at all. As a management team, we have just begun the process of redirecting the culture of this group, however, we have been faced with many challenges due to the lack of acceptance of the underlining problems and fear of being transparent.

Leadership Ethics:

  • What ethical guidelines would you set for gathering and sharing information?

Per Johnson, there are ethical drivers that are to be considered with regards to building upon ethical values which is necessary for gathering and sharing information. These drivers are: “ethical diagnosis, engaged leadership, targeting socialization processes, ethics training, and continuous ethical improvement.” (Johnson, 2019, p. 278, para. 2)

  • Is it possible for a leader to be incompetent but ethical?

There is the potential for an ethical leader to be incompetent. For example, potentially providing information too early because they are attempting to practice transparency to their employees. In my experience, employees get wind of information before I do as their manager. If I have been told by my administration that information will be shared will all employees at once to ensure consistency, it would be poor leadership on my part to share information simply because my employees are asking questions. It is okay to let them know that I do have information, however, it will be shared in a certain manner and explain why that is.

Also, a leader considered to be a Servant leader can also be incompetent if they are unable to balance finding value in both the needs of the organization and the employees. I have seen many supervisors fall short as leaders with this practice and inability to balance needs. They tend to caudle their employees and set them up for failure with an inability to work through challenges and adversity in a healthy and constructive manner.

  • Why are ethical leaders generally more effective as well?

Ethical leaders demonstrate their commitment to helping their clients (both external and internal), which in turn builds trust. Trust is essential in the ability to influence their followers, therefore, “followers are more involved in implementing plans and doing the work itself.” (Johnson, 2019, p. 191, para. 2) others to want to


Johnson, C. E. (2019). Organizational Ethics: A practical approach (4th ed.).

Bottom of Form

Bottom of Form



Top of Form

Group Ethics:

What poses the most danger to teams:  groupthink or mismanaged agreement?  

Mismanaged agreement poses the most danger to teams. Mismanaged agreement is when a team spend time, money, and support decisions that they secretly oppose (Johnson, C., 2019). This type of behavior can completely derail the purpose of a team, misleading others that total agreement exists due to failure of the team to communicate their desires and beliefs (Johnson, C., 2019). Mismanaged agreement could potentially cause a team to fail what their mission, which I think is the most dangerous, as all teams want to succeed and fulfill their mission and goals.


How do you recognize when your group is caught in the escalation of commitment? 

Escalation of commitment can be recognized by unethical behaviors, negative feedback, external pressures, missed deadlines, and cost overrun (Johnson, C., 2019). Escalation of commitment is a product of mismanaged agreements and is a continuation of a group choosing a failing course of action, one that goes against what the team believes.


Do you think that groups can exert more control over the behavior of members than managers do?

I do think groups can exert more control over the behavior of members than managers do, because teams and groups of people can be powerful. They are powerful in the way they behave, what they value, coordination, and inadvertently creating their own enforcement mechanisms (Johnson, C., 2019). If a leader does not encourage their team to regularly examine and access their values, the group could begin to control the behavior in a way that goes against what the manager intended for the group.

Leadership Ethics:

What ethical guidelines would you set for gathering and sharing information?

Ethical guidelines I would set for gathering and sharing information would be to have a balance of loyalties as a leader. It is important to act fairly and justly, understanding the circumstances and if it is applicable to bend the rules for certain individuals needs. Treat everyone with respect, and honesty. It is never okay to lie, especially when it is meant for personal gain. Maintain honesty, integrity, and loyalty when gathering and sharing information.


Is it possible for a leader to be incompetent but ethical?

                I do not think it is possible for a leader to be incompetent and ethical. Incompetent leaders lack emotional intelligence, which is key to understanding stress, and how to communicate, or make decisions in changing circumstances. It is probable for incompetent leaders to respond slow and inadequately, garnering a negative response (Johnson, C., 2019).


Why are ethical leaders generally more effective as well?

                Ethical leaders are generally more effective because they tend to engage and understand the needs, wants, and objectives of their followers. Emotional intelligence is typically a strong characteristic of ethical leaders, therefore allowing them to lead and exert a greater influence of understanding and ethical decision making, due to their affective actions taken. Ethical leaders understand their moral responsibilities and tend to act justly, responsibly, and utilize their power/influence in a positive, ethical manner (Johnson, C., 2019).



Johnson, C. (2019). Organizational ethics: A practical approach. Fourth edition. Los Angeles: SAGE.


Individual Assignment #10 – Only the Lonely


Pat is the manager of a real estate group that is part of a larger real estate company. Here are the total number of home sales from 2019 for all the agents at the entire company.

4, 6, 10, 4, 8, 10, 4, 3, 2, 4, 3, 6, 0, 4, 2, 8, 4, 6, 8, 2, 5, 3, 5, 4, 12, 4, 6, 9, 10, 8

Pat wants to know if her own real estate group, which has 4 agents (the sample, in this case), has sold more homes than the rest of the company (the population). Your job is to tell me if these four agents (agents A, B, C, and D) differ in number of home sales from the population (the entire company). Remember that you need to calculate the population standard deviation first!

Home Sold per Agent
Agent Number of homes sold in 2019
A 5
B 8
C 7
D 3


Your job is to determine if this sample (The average of agents A, B, C, and D) differ significantly from what you would expect given the population (the rest of the company).

Attempt History

Attempt Time Score
LATEST Attempt 1 30 minutes 8 out of 10 *

* Some questions not yet graded

Correct answers are hidden.
Score for this attempt: 8 out of 10 *
Submitted Mar 27 at 8:11am
This attempt took 30 minutes.

Question 1

0.5 / 0.5 pts
State the null hypothesis

H0: The sample drawn from the population reflects the population, or M = µ

H0: The sample drawn from the population reflects the population, or M ≠ µ

Question 2

0.5 / 0.5 pts
State the alternative hypothesis

H1: The sample drawn from the population reflects the population, or M = µ

H1: The sample drawn from the population does not reflect the population, or M ≠ µ

Question 3

0.5 / 0.5 pts
Indicate the level of risk used in psychology

The level of risk is .05

The level of risk is .01

The level of risk is .5

The level of risk is .1

Question 4

0.5 / 0.5 pts
Determine the best statistical test to use

Z score test

Correlational test

Critical value test


One-sample Z test


IncorrectQuestion 5

0 / 1 pts
First, you’ll have to calculate the SEM. Use the formula in the book/lecture to calculate the SEM. Put your value below. Remember that you will need to calculate the population standard deviation first (remember to use n rather than n-1 for the population standard deviation calculation). Round your response out to two decimal places. Just put the value as your answer.

Question 6

1 / 1 pts

Now, Compute the test statistic (Use the formulas in the book / lecture to calculate the correct statistic). Which of the following is the correct value? Remember that you will need to calculate the population standard deviation first (remember to use n rather than n-1 for the population standard deviation calculation).

z = .20

z =1.06

z = 0.171

z = 0.05

Question 7

1 / 1 pts
The value needed to reject the null hypothesis (the critical value) is ___________.





Question 8

1 / 1 pts
Does the obtained value exceed the critical value (that is, is the obtained value larger than the critical value)?



Question 9

1 / 1 pts
Based on your answer to the previous question, the decision is to ____________

Reject the null hypothesis

Fail to reject the null hypothesis

Question 10

Not yet graded / 1 pts
Write up your results as you would see it in a results section of an empirical research paper:
Your Answer:

Mean number of household sold by Pat’s company is not more than population

Question 11

1 / 1 pts

NOW, imagine we selected the following individuals (agents E, F, G, and H) from a different group from the same overall the real estate company (from the same population). Does this group significantly differ from the population (entire company)? What is the z value? Round your answer out to two decimal places.

Homes Sold per Agent in 2018
Agent Number of homes sold in 2018
E 9
F 12
G 10
H 4

Question 12

1 / 1 pts
Does the new sample (above) significantly differ from the whole population?



No answer text provided.

No answer text provided.


State the question first, then answer the question.


  1. What is the definition of organizational behavior and what are the major disciplines that contribute to OB? (Up to 10 pts.)


  1. How does workplace discrimination undermine organizational effectiveness? (Up to 10 pts.)


  1. Define and discuss Perception. (Up to 10 pts.)


  1. What causes job satisfaction, and how do employees respond to job satisfaction? (Up to 10 pts.)


  1. Why are the Hawthorne Studies important to the study of Organization behavior? (Up to 10 pts.)


  1. What are the characteristics and competencies of a good manager? (Up to 10 pts.)


  1. Why is employee job engagement important to managers? (Up to 10 pts.)


  1. What are the strengths and weaknesses of group versus individual decision making? (Up to 10 pts.)


  1. How do role requirements change in different group or team situations? (Up to 10 pts.)


  1. Discuss Moods and Emotions. (Up to 10 pts.)

The subjective experience of acute or chronic pain – What factors influence how someone experiences pain? How can this knowledge be applied to help quality of life?

TOPIC: The subjective experience of acute or chronic pain – What factors
influence how someone experiences pain? How can this knowledge be
applied to help quality of life?
Your research must include at least two journal articles or books. That is,
websites can be very helpful and informative, but your final paper must
include full articles (whether from the Internet or elsewhere) or books on
the topic. Sources should be reputable and consistent with what you
learned in the module as well as other sources. GoogleScholar and PDF
articles from the Internet can be helpful resources. This paper requirement
means that you need to include at least two primary sources in your paper;
articles from the Internet can be included, but they would be in addition to
the two minimum primary sources. Primary sources are firsthand accounts;
thus, they involve the author writing about his or her own work. Primary
sources include books or published journal articles.
I. Introduction. Introduce your topic and explain why this topic
was of interest to you.
II. Body of paper. Fully address your topic and all the
components of it. Support your points with your cited research.
The topic should be explained in full. This section should be at
least three pages long.
III. Application. Discuss your topic’s application component. Be
sure to mention what applications are recommended by others
and what you recommend. You must include your own views
about what the application should be, and clearly state them and
why. This section should be at least one to two pages
IV. Conclusion. Conclude your topic with a wrap-up paragraph.
Some suggestions for a good conclusion: a) end by summarizing
what was learned about this topic; b) end by emphasizing a
particular application of the information; c) end by suggesting
where future research and discussion should go on this topic



Qualities of a Nurse Leader

Assignment Description

Qualities of a Nurse Leader

It is important for nurse leaders to engage with other nurse leaders to understand professional roles; a practice experience is assigned to achieve this end. You will engage with and interview a nurse leader in person, telephone or email if necessary. You may include photos, graphs, or charts.

Choose a nurse leader who holds a leadership nursing position in their organization who have direct reports (they supervise other employees). Examples of this include Director of Nursing, Director, Unit Manager. *You may not be employed in the same facility as your interviewee or shadow during personal work hours* (If special accommodations need to be made, approval by your instructor is required first).
Develop an interview guide before conducting the interview. Identify information that you want to know before the interview and plan clarifying questions. You must include at least one question about technology/informatics.
Conduct an interview regarding their professional role in the organization, and a current health care issue that is of interest to you (ethics, conflict management, budget, staffing, culture of safety, “just culture”, career advancement, quality improvement, etc.). Identify the name of the organization and use names of all involved (no anonymity).
Prepare a written report of the interview.

Sample questions below. Feel free to vary the content of the questions to fit your interview:

(Nurse Manager) Please describe the nursing and inter-professional teams that operate in this facility(Malvern Behavioral Health)/on this unit.
Can you provide an example of a nursing practice that has been changed in the last year based on current best evidence?
What do you consider your biggest challenge?
What do you love most about your job?
Why did you choose this job?
What other kinds of nursing/other job did you ever do?
How would you describe your company’s culture?
How would you describe your role in admission and staffing decisions?
What is your leadership style?

*Incorporate these as well:

1. As a psychiatric nurse leader, explain what motivates you when the shifts gets tough.

This question will uncover the desire that drives the nurse in all situations that he/she face. Calming agitated patients requires more than training and if the nurse lacks the inner drive, they are likely to get stressed at the workplace.

2. How do you respond to feedback given to you by superiors such as physicians?

This question will show the skills that a nurse possesses for handling professions activities and also show the willingness to consolidate awareness on their strengths and also areas requiring improvement as perceived by superiors. It will be possible to tell how dynamic a nurse is whenever a superior call for redirection for the sake of performance improvement.

3. Give me an example of a time when you provided care for a patient and the family was not satisfied with your care. How did you handle the situation?

This will give show if the nurse is keen to details by explaining their personal perspective and that of the patient’s family as well. It will also shed light on the personality of the nurse, and their readiness to accept responsibility. Additionally, it will show the nurse’s ability to learn lessons by sharing what they would do differently to make it positive.

4. Tell me about a time when you interacted with a hostile patient and how you handled the situation. What was the outcome?

The question will depict if the nurse is procedural by explaining the step by step actions they took. The nurse should be able to explain what hostile means, and how their emotions were affected by the patient’s hostility, since the reaction of the nurse determines the outcome.

5. Explain a time when you offered effective patient education.

This question will show whether the nurse cares to promote patient-centered care, which contribute to ultimate improvement of the patient’s health. Educating patients makes them feel engaged in the care interventions which increases the likelihood of positive outcomes. It also shows if the nurse values continuity of care because educated patients have lesser illnesses related complications.

Assignment Expectations:

Length: 1500 to 1750 words in length

Structure: Include a title page and reference page in APA format as well as a running header. Your essay must include an introduction and a conclusion.

References: Use appropriate APA style in-text citations and references for all resources utilized to answer the questions. Your essay should have at least three scholarly references. Please be sure to cite the interview in APA format.


Module 3 – SLP Developing and Rewarding Employees

Module 3 – SLP
Developing and Rewarding Employees
For the SLP assignments in this course, you first discussed the role of HR staff in treating employees as assets in Module 1. You also learned how the various HR laws protect both employees and employers. In Module 2, you learned about the different steps of the talent management process: recruiting, interviewing, selecting, and on-boarding new employees. In Module 3, you will continue to follow two employees with the focus now on employee training and development, performance management, performance appraisals, and performance strategies.

Talent management is a process used to develop members of the organization so that they can perform their jobs at top effectiveness and efficiency. It is a continuous process of improvement and an opportunity to provide human capital with the updates and insight needed to be successful on the job.

ACME Packing

Developing and Rewarding Employees

What is employee training and development?
What is performance management?
What is a performance appraisal?
What are some non-traditional performance strategies to increase employee engagement, increase productivity, and improve performance levels?
In Module 3, your SLP assignment will cover the topic of Developing and Rewarding Employees. In this assignment, you will discuss the differences between employee training and development as well as the differences between performance management and performance appraisal. Then, working with your HR manager, you will determine what training and development opportunities are available for the two roles you selected to follow in Module 2. Next, you will discuss your understanding of the difference between performance management and a performance appraisal. Selecting one of the two roles you selected to follow in Module 2, determine what parts of a performance appraisal (at the annual review of your selection) should be required and explain why. Last, you will discuss the use of non-traditional performance strategies you will use to increase employee engagement, increase productivity, and improve the performance level of the second employee you hired in Module 2 at ACME Packing.

SLP Assignment

Your paper for this assignment will be 2-3 pages (which means not less than two full pages) that cover the following four topics:

Employee training and development
Performance management
Performance appraisal
Non-traditional performance strategies
In addition to the background readings, find one additional peer-reviewed academic journal article to support your discussion about one of these four topics. These are usually found in the Trident Online Library.

Submit the assignment to the SLP 3 Dropbox by the due date and time for Module 3 assignments.

SLP Assignment Expectations
Your submission will be assessed on the criteria found in the grading rubric for this assignment:

Meets assignment requirements
Critical thinking
Writing and assignment organization
Use of sources and mechanics
Timeliness of assignment


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Dr. Marquez is a dentist with a well-practice in North York,Toronto, Ontario. She has sought your advice regarding the deductibility/tax ability of the following expenditures and income items identified during the current taxation year


Question 1

Dr. Marquez is a dentist with a well-practice in North York,Toronto, Ontario. She has sought y our advice regarding the deductibility/taxability of the following expenditures and income items identified during the current taxation year:

  1. Insurance payments Included a $1,650 premium for coverage of her office and contents, $3,800 for malpractice coverage, and $2,100 in life insurance premiums.
  2. Payments were made to a collection agency in the amount of $1,375 for assistance in collecting past due amounts from patients.
  3. Contributions of $1,000 were made to various registered charities.
  4. Dr. Marquez paid a total of $21,0 00 to her husband for his services a s a full-time bookkeeper and receptionist.
  5. A total of $5,300 was spent to attend a dental convention in Chicago, Illinois. Dr. Marquez was accompanied by her husband and $1,750 of the total cost of the trip relates directly to him.
  6. Anamountof $1,200 was paid for membership in a racquets club. In addition, $1,600 was spent for court time, approximately 40 percent of which was for time spent playing with patients.
  7. Dr. Marquez paid $1,800 in legal and accounting fees. These fees related to objecting to a personal income tax reassesment fora previous tax year. The objection was not successful and, as a consequence, Dr. Marquez was required to pay additional taxes of $17,900, plus $1,710 in interest on the late payments.
  8. Dr. Marquez purchased the building in which her practice is located in 2005. Her practice uses 50 percent of the floor space in the building and, on January 1, 2019 the Class 1 UCC for the building is $575,000.
  9. Dr. Marquez’ late father was an amateur painter who didn’t sell a single painting while he was alive. He gave Dr. Marquez a number of his paintings over the years. Shortly after his death, he was “discovered” and his paintings were in demand. During 2019, she sold two of his large paintings for $10,000 each. The electrician doing the renovations in the building fell in love with one of his other paintings. The electrician offered to trade $10,000 in services for it and Dr. Marquez accepted the offer.
  10. During the year, Dr. Marquez spent $3,300 purchasing provincial lottery tickets.

Required: Advise Dr. Marquez with respect to the deductibility/taxability of the preceding expenditures and income in the calculation of Net Income for Tax Purposes. Explain your position on each expenditure or income item.



Drawing from the readings for this week, how does social class shape educational experiences in the United States (Jean Anyon’s piece) and in Britain (Diane Reay)? What are the similarities? The differences?

Question: Drawing from the readings for this week, how does social class shape educational experiences in the United States (Jean Anyon’s piece) and in Britain (Diane Reay)? What are the similarities? The differences?


My response for a Discussion Prompt


Both articles had different ways of identifying how social class is created and divided by the middle-class and the working-class. Both authors explained it start from the educational system and also how education is accustomed to the different social class students. The article “Social Class And School Knowledge.” by Jean Anyon gave a different type of schoolings and education to the separate social class students. Jean Anyon was able to prove the capital, and social status of parents paid a significant role in their children’s education. Jean Anyon observed and interviewed students from different schools and mentioned that middle-class school has a better learning environment, and better teachers verse the working class.

The second article, “Finding or Losing yourself?: working-class relationship to education.” by Diane Reay was different because her piece was based on college education and how it affects the working-class students verse the middle-class students. According to Diane Reay, working-class students face challenges in how they fit in higher education and with the middle-class students. The middle-students do not meet the same problems. Higher education, according to Reay, can be the source in which the middle-class and working-class exist in society. Because how the educational system works better the middle-class students, whose parents have the capital and social class.

I believe the educational system provide better education to the economic privilege students, and these students have an excellent opportunity to succeed and maintain their social class. Unfortunately, the educational system does not do the same for the working-class students, who are unable to have an equal learning opportunity.



One Side of the Team to the Other

Compose a 250-500 word essay describing your reasons for undertaking study in nursing at The George Washington University, your academic objectives, career goals, and related qualifications. Your essay should address Why nursing? Why now? Why GW?



World CIV Topic between 1600-1950

World civilization is a term that has been used broadly to evaluate and assess the growth of the earliest beginning to the current state. The first recorded civilization in the world was in Mesopotamia in the 4th millennium BC. It is the first known and sophisticated civilization that was first to develop city-states (Berger, Pg. 66). In these cities, the first known that any forms of writing or the cuneiform scripts emerged at around 3000 BCE. Since then, many civilizations have risen and fallen with the early six greatest civilizations being Mesopotamia, Indus Valley in present-day India, Andean Civilization of South America where the Inca people emerged and flourished, Egyptian Civilization in modern-day Egypt where a sophisticated social, economic, and political civilization emerged and thrived for hundreds of years, the Mesoamerica, and Huang Ho river region in present-day China (Scarre).

The civilizations are believed to have arisen independently and controlled different trade routes, had different social and religious beliefs, and some of the landmarks associated with these civilizations are still present, depicting a complex and integrated culture of the past. Civilizations are further defined using social, political, and economic characteristics, which include domestication, centralization, and culturally ingrained progress ideologies, monumental architecture, among other ideologies (Scarre). The essay will be discussing several factors that are associated with world civilization between 1600 and 1950, which affected the civilizations and any other aspect that can be attributed to it between the times.

World Civilization between 1600 and 1700

            The period is synonymous with the 17th century and has been known as one of the most intriguing moments in the history of civilization. There were so many things that were happening in the century, and a lot has been recorded. In 1601 the Dutch defeated Portuguese to have control of the Spice archipelago or the Indonesian islands. It was also during this period that the Dutch government gave East India Company the monopoly to lead trade all over Asia (McCloskey, Pg. 63). Notably, during this time, from 1500-1800, the rise of the western empire dominated the records. This was the rise of Western Europe, which had previously suffered invasions from Africa, non-parts of Western Europe, and Asia. By this time, the western took advantage of its newly developed technologies and sailed to new areas.

The Americas were deeply affected by the invasion of the Europeans due to conquests, the introduction of new technologies, and also the introduction of rare sicknesses in their lives. By1605, the British army helped the Iranian military in defeating the Ottomans army, which was very significant. At this time, most of the established countries and civilizations were fighting over the control of the Americas and Asia. This was intense, and many European powers were in an ever raging war that would change the history of the world forever. For example, the Dutch finished their domination of the Indian ocean and controlled most of the trade routes in the region and were now established a strong outpost in the western coast of the country (Irving-Stonebraker). In 1610, Henry, the fourth of France, who was a very progressive king and also religious tolerant, was assassinated by Francois Ravaillac, who was highly unreligious and too unbalanced. Ravaillac was arrested and questioned on why he planned the killing of Henry but was highly unstable. He believed that his hallucinations were religious beliefs that directed him to assassinate the King in the streets of Paris.


During this time, many scientists around the globe and particularly in Europe, and they had increased the space observations and come up with the theories surrounding the space. For example, in 1611, Galileo had tried to prove that the earth revolved the sun and not the vice versa as it was believed, but his claims were rebuffed. In terms of Indian Ocean dominance, Britain had reduced the influence Portugal had on the ocean by 1612 through fighting and winning the naval war at Surat India (Irving-Stonebraker). The Dutch arrived at the island of Timur, which had been claimed by Portugal and further reduced the influence Portugal had. At around that time, the first time barrel of cured tobacco had been brought in England from a colony in Virginia. Shakespeare died in 1616, and so did Tokugawa Ieyasu, the primary founder, and leader of Tokugawa Shogunate of Japan.

Due to the increased shipment of cured tobacco from Virginia to England, most of the English citizens had become typical smokers, which the then king, King James, described as loathsome and harmful to the brain and also dangerous to the lungs of the smokers. At the start of 1619, the African slave trade had started, and many Africans were being transported to replace other Africans who had died in West Indies since the sugar industry was killing them fast that they were being replaced through procreation. In 1659, the Khoikhoi of South Africa defended themselves against the Dutch, who had attempted to grab their grazing lands. In conclusion, the 17th-century civilizations were outdoing each other in a number of ways, with the colonization of new properties and technology being some of the main areas they were focusing on.

World Civilization between 1700 and 1800

During the 18th century, the world experienced tremendous changes that shaped the world forever. Many people, particularly in Western Europe, experienced what is known as the industrial revolution during this period that developed the way people did business and also produced goods and services. There were seven years of intense war between Britain and other countries where together with Prussia, Britain won the war against France, Russia, Spain, and Austria. France lost the battle and all it’s North American colonies, whereas Spain gave out Florida in exchange for Cuba by the British.

During this period, Samuel Johnson established the first US postal services in 1755 that continued to serve postal services across different areas in the country. It was during this era that there was the declaration of US independence and was approved in July 4th, 1776. The continental congress that made the announcement was made up of members from different American colonies who sought for self-governance. Before independence, the American Revolution started in concord and Lexington, Massachusetts, the revolution which brought the onset of revolution in the country. During this time, the European countries were struggling to establish dominance in the new world, dominated by countries like England, that boosted for highly skilled human resources and technology that was beyond other countries at the time. This ensured that they were able to sail for long distances with large fleets, which made them outdo many of their competitors.

Possibly, the industrial revolution is what marked this period of human civilization more. Industrial revolution or the first industrial revolution was the transition from primitive farming and agricultural-based production to new manufacturing processes in England and also in the United States. The period lasted between 1760 to around 1820 to 1840 (Eissa). The production moved from small shops to large factories where the shift brought about people moving away from rural areas to large cities so that they can work in factories. The revolution brought about new ideologies to do work, new modes of transportation, and a very different way of living among the people. Many of the first innovations that brought about the change happened in Great Britain and were in the textile industry. The changes were aided by the fact that Britain had a lot of coal, which enabled them to power machines and other automobiles in the country. Consequently, the era saw intensive slave trade on a global scale. British colonies lacked slaves in the USA and had to import them from Africa. The strategies brought about a change in how people viewed the humanity, with many black slaves being forced to work for their masters with no pay.

The first revolution happened and stayed for around 100 years between the late 1700 to mid-1800s. This was characterized by a change in the textile industry and also the moving of production from home and small scale to large factories. During the period, steam-powered engines and cotton gin were an integral part of the change that ensured the process was a success. In the USA, the change occurred mainly in the New England and northeast regions and brought about numerous cultural differences. Cities grew large and were un-sanitized were many poor workers lived in slums and congested areas. The transport system changed, and people stopped moving by horses and boats and started utilizing large steam engines, rails, steamboats, and automobiles, mainly in the second revolution (Reid). The negative part of the revolution was the poor working conditions in these factories, where few laws protected workers in the factories. Child labor was a common practice, and people had to work for long in order to achieve daily wages (Eissa).

World Civilization between 1800 and 1900

            The era is also called the 19th century and started and is highly characterized by increased human exploration to the new world and even to Africa. There was a lot of social changes all over the globe with the slave trade and slavery in the United States and other countries being abolished, the first and also the second industrial revolutions that overlapped from the 18th to the 20th century leading to a massive change of the production process, voyaging, and even livelihood. The European powers brought about much control in many African, Asian, and South Asian states into an era of colonialism. Some of the renowned empires of the period include the Roman, the Spanish, Zulu of South Africa, First French, and Mughal empires that changed the way civilization did things.

Through these empires, more durable and highly advanced empires came into life. They included the German empire that replaced what was of Holy Roman Empire, the British empire that established colonial rule across much of continental Africa and other Asian countries, The Russian empire that saw much of the central and other countries in Asia fall under its jurisdiction, and the United States Empire where more states continued to join the alliance, forming a more robust nation that we know today (Jiang, Pg. 2323). When the French empire was defeated during the Napoleonic wars, both British and Russian empires became highly unchallenged and established dominance over other countries at that time. For example, the Russian powers and empire expanded to other areas of southern Asia and the Caucasus.

Many of the French allies that remained in the subcontinent of India, including much of Mysore kingdom and Nawabs of Bengal and others suffered a massive loss, and although their rebellion against British India Company led to the demolition of the company in the country, India was directly ruled by the British, through the British crown by establishing what was known as British Raj. During the first half of the 19th century, the British Empire increased, establishing new dominance in countries like Canada, Australia, the densely populated India, and also in the continent of Africa, which was highly unexplored at that time. Interestingly, the British Empire had established control over a fifth of the world land area and around one-quarter of the world’s population, making it one of the largest empires to ever rise in the planet.

In terms of development and advancement in medicine, the era saw massive changes that continue to impact our lives today. Science was born as a profession, and the term scientist was adapted in 1833 by a scholar by the name William Whewell, replacing the term philosopher. Other influential ideas were those of Charles Darwin, the origin of humankind, which introduced the concept of natural selection through evolution. There was a lot of invention of different things ranging from science to astronomy and beyond. For example, aspirin was patented in the year 1889 and revolutionized the area of medicine. Louis Pasteur might be the most renowned scientist of the era due to his creation vaccine ever known to man when he came up with a vaccine against rabies (Rappuoli, Pg 8) He isolated it from a young boy that had disease through multiple bites from a rabid dog. Finally, the 19th century witnessed much of the changes that shaped world civilization and history forever. These changes and inventions have continued to influence how humans have continued to survive in the planet to date.

World Civilization between 1900 and 1950

            During the first half of the 20th century, much of the changes that occurred marked significant political, social, and economic changes in the world. To put that into perspective, there were two world wars in the half-century, there was the cold war, the start of United States war, and the collapse of the Soviet Union. Particularly impressive is the fact that many nations in Africa were colonized by British powers who exploited their resources, used gun power and slaves to accomplish their missions, and also ensured that these African countries were submissive to the rules (Maxwell, Pg. 5). Most African countries formed rebellions against the European powers, which saw an end to the colonization of many nations before the half-century ended. However, two countries, Ethiopia and Liberia, did not experience colonization due to rebellion and the fact that the USA backed the latter due to the establishment of a free state by slaves who had decided to move back to Africa.

Even though the half-century was filed with a lot of wars and crimes against humanity, a lot of innovation, particularly in Europe, also happened during this time. The era was ushered by the Wright brothers who innovated the first-ever airplane in the United States. The country also mesmerized the world through several intriguing innovations of the past century. During the world wars, the use of tanks as combat machinery was used for the first time, and the use of an atomic bomb in the second war, both innovated by the US, showed that the country was able to respond to urgent and also important military stimuli (Jiang). Although human civilization had continued to use different principles about electricity in the 19th century, much of the large scale production of power happened in the 20th century with the enormous expansion of electricity generation and also distribution. On the onset of 1950, the Korean peninsula witnessed an intensive war, The Korean War, which lasted for about three years. The war saw the Soviet backed North Korea attack the pro-west South Korea and ended with establishment of a demilitarized zone which separated the north and the south. Interestingly, the zone is one of the most militarized zone in the world, with soldiers from the north guarding against any north Korean trying to run to the south.


            Humans have continued to live in the world from around 200,000 years ago, according to the first fossils of the anatomically modern human being found in Omo Valley, Ethiopia. From as early as 3000 BC, human civilizations had already started to establish dominance in the world, with much of the earliest civilizations changing the concept of both social and political advancement beyond simple living. Empires such as the Egyptians and the Inca established dominance in different continents, and their effects is still felt to date. From 1600 to 1950, or from the 17th to the mid-20th century, most changes in human civilization was diverse and along many fields and ranged from different aspects. Most empires were establishing dominance across a vast land and sea area, as witnessed by the British Empire, which established dominance in many parts of the world. The geopolitical aspect of the civilizations in between this period cannot be underestimated as this was one of the most diverse periods in world politics. The period also saw a massive boom in innovations from the world of medicine, engineering, manufacturing, and other essential fields with changes that have continued to shape our lives to date. World civilizations from the 1600 century has witnessed some of the intense wars in the making of USA, like the revolution war, and also wars that shaped the history of the world, like the first and second world wars. The period covered in the text was crucial for the development and progress of the globe and was marked by imperative events from one time to another.





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