Individual Assignment # 2 – Confound It All!

PSY3211 – Research Methods and Data Analysis in Psychology

 

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Question 1

0 / 0.5 pts

Scenario A. A professor is interested in studying how sleep influences exam performance. She instructs her students to sleep for 8 hours before exam 1, to sleep for 4 hours before exam 2, and to not sleep at all before exam 3.

 

What is the independent variable for this study?

The content on the exams

Exam performance

The amount of caffeine students consumes before the exam

The amount of sleep students get before the exam

Question 2

0.5 / 0.5 pts

Scenario A. A professor is interested in studying how sleep influences exam performance. She instructs her students to sleep for 8 hours before exam 1, to sleep for 4 hours before exam 2, and to not sleep at all before exam 3.

How many levels are there for the independent variable?

One

Two

Three

None

Question 3

0.5 / 0.5 pts

Scenario A. A professor is interested in studying how sleep influences exam performance. She instructs her students to sleep for 8 hours before exam 1, to sleep for 4 hours before exam 2, and to not sleep at all before exam 3.

What is the dependent variable?

The amount of caffeine students consumes before the exam

The amount of sleep students get before the exam

Exam performance

The content on the exams

Question 4

Not yet graded / 0.5 pts

Scenario A. A professor is interested in studying how sleep influences exam performance. She instructs her students to sleep for 8 hours before exam 1, to sleep for 4 hours before exam 2, and to not sleep at all before exam 3.

 

What is the confound?

Your Answer:

In this case scenario, the confounding variable is the amount of knowledge a student has on the subject. This will determine whether the student will pass or not irrespective of the amount of time they will sleep.

Question 5

Not yet graded / 0.5 pts

Scenario A: A professor is interested in studying how sleep influences exam performance. She instructs her students to sleep for 8 hours before exam 1, to sleep for 4 hours before exam 2, and to not sleep at all before exam 3.

 How could the confound be fixed?

Your Answer:

The confound can be fixed through matching students who have slept for the same time into the same group and comparing them.

IncorrectQuestion 6

0 / 0.5 pts

Scenario B. A researcher is interested in studying how alcohol consumption influences memory. She goes into a local bar and asks bar patrons who have had at least two alcoholic drinks in the past hour to complete a memory test. She then compares their memory scores to a control group, who came into her laboratory at the university to complete the memory test (while sober). 

What is the independent variable?

Memory ability

Alcohol consumption (sober vs. not sober)

The control group

The hour in which they consumed their drinks

Question 7

0.5 / 0.5 pts

Scenario B. A researcher is interested in studying how alcohol consumption influences memory. She goes into a local bar and asks bar patrons who have had at least two alcoholic drinks in the past hour to complete a memory test. She then compares their memory scores to a control group, who came into her laboratory at the university to complete the memory test (while sober). 

How many levels are there for the independent variable?

One

Two

None

Three

Question 8

0.5 / 0.5 pts

Scenario B. A researcher is interested in studying how alcohol consumption influences memory. She goes into a local bar and asks bar patrons who have had at least two alcoholic drinks in the past hour to complete a memory test. She then compares their memory scores to a control group, who came into her laboratory at the university to complete the memory test (while sober). 

What is the dependent variable?

The control group

Alcohol consumption

The hour in which they consumed their drinks

Memory ability

Question 9

Not yet graded / 0.5 pts

Scenario B. A researcher is interested in studying how alcohol consumption influences memory. She goes into a local bar and asks bar patrons who have had at least two alcoholic drinks in the past hour to complete a memory test. She then compares their memory scores to a control group, who came into her laboratory at the university to complete the memory test (while sober). 

What is the confound?

Your Answer:

The cofound in the scenario is the level of alcohol consumption which will both affect the memory and also the amount of time the person drunk.

Question 10

Not yet graded / 0.5 pts

Scenario B. A researcher is interested in studying how alcohol consumption influences memory. She goes into a local bar and asks bar patrons who have had at least two alcoholic drinks in the past hour to complete a memory test. She then compares their memory scores to a control group, who came into her laboratory at the university to complete the memory test (while sober). 

How could the confound be fixed?

Your Answer:

The cofound can be fixed through randomization where the links between exposure, or alcohol consumption will be broken from confounders.

Question 11

0.5 / 0.5 pts

Scenario C. A researcher is interested in whether living in a city where the major sports team is currently doing well makes residents feel happier and more connected to their city than if their sports team is doing poorly. He asks residents of Washington, D.C. to rate their feelings of connectedness to their city (on a scale of 1-10) during game 3 of the World Series, when their baseball team, The Nationals, are currently winning the series (2-0). He then asks residents of Pittsburgh, PA to rate their feelings of connectedness to their city (on a scale of 1-10) during fifth week of the football season, when their football team, the Steelers, have yet to win a game all season (when their record is 0 wins and 5 losses). 

 

What is the independent variable?

The type of sport they are playing

How happy and connected they are to their city

Whether the sports team is doing well or not

The location of the city

Question 12

0.5 / 0.5 pts

Scenario C. A researcher is interested in whether living in a city where the major sports team is currently doing well makes residents feel happier and more connected to their city than if their sports team is doing poorly. He asks residents of Washington, D.C. to rate their feelings of connectedness to their city (on a scale of 1-10) during game 3 of the World Series, when their baseball team, The Nationals, are currently winning the series (2-0). He then asks residents of Pittsburgh, PA to rate their feelings of connectedness to their city (on a scale of 1-10) during fifth week of the football season, when their football team, the Steelers, have yet to win a game all season (when their record is 0 wins and 5 losses). 

 

How many levels are there for the independent variable?

Two

Three

One

None

Question 13

0.5 / 0.5 pts

Scenario C. A researcher is interested in whether living in a city where the major sports team is currently doing well makes residents feel happier and more connected to their city than if their sports team is doing poorly. He asks residents of Washington, D.C. to rate their feelings of connectedness to their city (on a scale of 1-10) during game 3 of the World Series, when their baseball team, The Nationals, are currently winning the series (2-0). He then asks residents of Pittsburgh, PA to rate their feelings of connectedness to their city (on a scale of 1-10) during fifth week of the football season, when their football team, the Steelers, have yet to win a game all season (when their record is 0 wins and 5 losses). 

 

What is the dependent variable?

How happy and connected they are to their city

The location of the city

Whether the sports team is doing well or not

The type of sport they are playing

Question 14

Not yet graded / 0.5 pts

Scenario C. A researcher is interested in whether living in a city where the major sports team is currently doing well makes residents feel happier and more connected to their city than if their sports team is doing poorly. He asks residents of Washington, D.C. to rate their feelings of connectedness to their city (on a scale of 1-10) during game 3 of the World Series, when their baseball team, The Nationals, are currently winning the series (2-0). He then asks residents of Pittsburgh, PA to rate their feelings of connectedness to their city (on a scale of 1-10) during fifth week of the football season, when their football team, the Steelers, have yet to win a game all season (when their record is 0 wins and 5 losses). 

What is the confound?

Your Answer:

In my opinion, the confounding variable can be the type of the sport each team is playing. It would be maybe the fixture of The Nationals is much easier and that is why they are performing better as compared to the Steelers who might be having a hard time with their fixture.

Question 15

Not yet graded / 0.5 pts

Scenario C. A researcher is interested in whether living in a city where the major sports team is currently doing well makes residents feel happier and more connected to their city than if their sports team is doing poorly. He asks residents of Washington, D.C. to rate their feelings of connectedness to their city (on a scale of 1-10) during game 3 of the World Series, when their baseball team, The Nationals, are currently winning the series (2-0). He then asks residents of Pittsburgh, PA to rate their feelings of connectedness to their city (on a scale of 1-10) during fifth week of the football season, when their football team, the Steelers, have yet to win a game all season (when their record is 0 wins and 5 losses). 

How could the confound be fixed?

Your Answer:

This can be fixed through comparing two teams that play the same sport. It would be effective if the researcher analyzed two football teams from the two cities and the amount of happiness supporters have on their teams, maybe playing in the baseball or the football league.

Question 16

0.5 / 0.5 pts

Scenario D. A researcher wants to see if a new phone app can help to treat anxiety better than in-person therapy or medication. She has participants in her study complete two weeks of treatment with the app, two weeks of treatment with medication, and then two weeks of treatment in-person with a therapist.  She compares anxiety scores after each round of treatment.

What is the independent variable?

Type of therapy

Anxiety levels

The participants in the study

The amount of time they are in each therapy

Question 17

0.5 / 0.5 pts

Scenario D. A researcher wants to see if a new phone app can help to treat anxiety better than in-person therapy or medication. She has participants in her study complete two weeks of treatment with the app, two weeks of treatment with medication, and then two weeks of treatment in-person with a therapist.  She compares anxiety scores after each round of treatment.

How many levels are there for the independent variable?

One

Three

Two

Four

Question 18

0.5 / 0.5 pts

Scenario D. A researcher wants to see if a new phone app can help to treat anxiety better than in-person therapy or medication. She has participants in her study complete two weeks of treatment with the app, two weeks of treatment with medication, and then two weeks of treatment in-person with a therapist.  She compares anxiety scores after each round of treatment.

What is the dependent variable?

Type of therapy

The amount of time they are in each therapy

Anxiety levels

The participants in the study

Question 19

Not yet graded / 0.5 pts

Scenario D. A researcher wants to see if a new phone app can help to treat anxiety better than in-person therapy or medication. She has participants in her study complete two weeks of treatment with the app, two weeks of treatment with medication, and then two weeks of treatment in-person with a therapist.  She compares anxiety scores after each round of treatment.

What is the confound?

Your Answer:

The participants in the study can be the confound of the scenario. It is possible to find that there are some participants that are not conversant with the app, others might find meditation or in-person therapy more helpful. As such it would influence both the results of the therapy and the time for the therapy.

Question 20

Not yet graded / 0.5 pts

Scenario D. A researcher wants to see if a new phone app can help to treat anxiety better than in-person therapy or medication. She has participants in her study complete two weeks of treatment with the app, two weeks of treatment with medication, and then two weeks of treatment in-person with a therapist.  She compares anxiety scores after each round of treatment.

How can the confound be fixed?

Your Answer:

The best way to fix this would be matching people who find the use of the app, in-person therapy or meditation as their preferred mode of therapy.