Below is your second article:
Read the article: “Online Lives, Offline Consequences:Professionalism, Information Ethics, and Professional Students” by Isaac Gilman. Link (Links to an external site.)
(Links to an external site.)
Write three-four sentences for numbers 1, 2, 3 and write a paragraph (130-150 words) for number 4.
1. Identify an author’s methods of persuasion.
2. Analyze an author’s methods of persuasion.
3. Identify and analyze other rhetorical concepts such as audience, purpose, genre, and context.
4. Explain and argue how the writer makes choices in order to persuade audiences to accept his claims by appealing to his audience’s emotion (pathos), sense of logic and reasoning (logos), and by making himself believable and credible (ethos).
The following section includes the reading steps for both articles. This time analize Gilman’s article.
Reading Preparation Steps:
Skim both articles, taking note of the titles, subtitles, first and last paragraphs in order to get the “gist” of each text. Make a prediction about the writer’s purpose and potential audience(s).
Closely read and annotate both texts. Make comments, ask questions, make connections. As you read consider how this writer is trying to engage his/her audience.
After a first read, read each text a second time according to the strategies we have used in class in order to identify each text’s main argument, supporting claims, evidence. Write out a quick summary of each text. Identify the type of evidence each writer uses.
Given the publication and content of the article, what do you know about the audience for each text? Who are they?
Why is it reasonable that the audience might not accept the writer’s claims?
Where do you see the writer trying to address the audience’s opposition?
How would you describe the strategy the writer is using?
How might using this strategy increase the likelihood that the audience would accept the writer’s main argument?
What impact might the writer have been trying to achieve in using this strategy?
How might this impact have been effective (given the audience and their beliefs, values, experiences) so that the audience is persuaded to agree with the writer’s main argument?
N.B! Use the following strategies to answer the questions (1. 2. 3. 4) more effectively:
A. To evaluate the ethical appeal: (Ethos (authors’ credibility):
Questions to ask:
1. What does this speaker/writer do to seem knowledgeable about the topic?
2. What are the speaker/writer’s biases and values?
3. What seems to be the speaker/writer’s mood?
4. What is the speaker/writer’s approach to the topic: formal/informal, logical/illogical, emotional. distant, factual, or personal).
Things to look for…
5. Uses credible sources
6. Accurately cites sources
7. Appears to have experience and authority
8. Establishes common values and beliefs as the audience
9. Uses the appropriate language for the genre
10. Appropriate tone: knows the audience and context of situation
B. Logos (reasons and evidence
1. What does the speaker/writer’s purpose for her/his presentation?
2. What claims does the speaker/writer make about the topic?
3. What types of evidence does the speaker/writer rely upon?
4. Are the types of evidence used persuasive?
5. To what extent does the intended audience share the values and beliefs of the speaker/author (is the speaker/writer persuading a friendly, hostile, or neural audience?)
Things to look for…
6. Draw from philosophy and logic
7. Use facts and statistics
8. Define terms
9. Explain ideas
10. Use cause and effect reasoning
11. Provide the details that come from objective reporting
12. Logical reasons and explanation
13. Acknowledge a counter argument and rebut it.
C. Pathos (evoke emotions and interest in the topic)
1. What does the speaker do to influence the listener to identify with the speaker?
2. What does the speaker do to establish a relationship with the listener?
3. What does the speaker do to influence the listener to identify with the assumed audience for the presentation?
4. What does the speaker do to influence the reader to identify with particular interests, values, or benefits?
5. What does the speaker do to influence the listener to engage in the topic?
Things to look for…
6. Uses stories or testimonials, personal anecdotes
7. Attempt to make personal connections
8. Uses imagery and figurative language intended to provoke an emotional response
9. Uses visual images or words that inspire empathy or compassion towards the idea/topic
10. Uses powerful words, phrases, or images that may sir up emotion.