17 questions on thermodynamics, gas laws, carnot cycles (please help with formulas and show work)

Hi there! I really need your help please. You would be saving me by helping me understand this stuff. Ok so for question 1, you only need to fill out the chart once. I just wanted to show you what the drop down menu is showing. Every drop down menu is the same for all the options. It’s just asking if its positive, negative or 0.
Please tell me what formulas or information I need to use to find each answer. I want to be able to understand the material. Even if you just give me the formulas, that would be great.