2 APA Bibliographies; Ethical and Unethical Practices and Policies of Law Enforcement

2

APA Bibliographies; Ethical and Unethical Practices and Policies of Law Enforcement

Ethics in the Public Sector (13919, 13921)

Athens State University

11/6/2022

APA Bibliographies; Ethical and Unethical Practices and Policies of Law Enforcement

Westmarland, L., & Conway, S. (2020). Police ethics and integrity: Keeping the ‘blue code’of silence. International Journal of Police Science & Management, 22(4), 378-392.

Using responses to several ethical conundrums from police officers and support workers provided in an online survey, this article investigates perceptions about ethics and integrity on the police. The purpose of this study was to look at any connections between respondents’ views of the severity or kind of infraction and their propensity to report the activity. Examining the results from their poll of more than 1500 police officers, police community support officers, and police support workers, the article examines professional ethics and integrity. Showing which of the scenarios was deemed to be the most serious and is more likely to be reported is the writers’ major goal. Additionally, they provide some explanations for the importance of the “blue code.”

According to the findings, there was still hesitation to report some crimes in 10 of the survey conditions. Reporting offers a lot of assurance. Using excessive force or covering up for a coworker who was intoxicated were also likely to be recorded offenses, as was unauthorized access to the Police National Computer. Respondents were less likely to report a coworker keeping a recovered watch than a financial theft.

The results of the current study confirm those of multiple other studies. The survey was created and released about three years after the 2014 publication of the College of Policing’s Code of Ethics. Future studies may find it useful that the College’s code gives police a far greater, statutory need to report infractions. This investigation uncovered a lot of oddities that need to be further investigated in future studies as well as some fascinating scientific results. The research claims that some elements of the blue code are still blatantly evident and that the respondents, who were police officers and other support workers, wanted to participate in the dialogues surrounding the fictitious incidents. Although it is obvious that the two codes can coexist, it is instructive to see some of the instances in which the Blue code of quiet and the code of ethics vie for attention.

Blumberg, D. M., Papazoglou, K., & Schlosser, M. D. (2020). Organizational solutions to the moral risks of policing. International journal of environmental research and public health, 17(20), 7461.

Along with physical and emotional difficulties, law enforcement employees also face significant moral dangers while at work. The activities that lead to unethical decision-making mistakes, moral discomfort, moral harm, ethical exhaustion, compassion fatigue, and other issues are among the moral risks. What police agencies can do to better control the ethical risks of policing is the main topic of this article. These moral risks are crucial to officers’ wellbeing and, consequently, to their readiness for operations.

Presentation of hiring and training, monitoring, and promotional tactics that will improve preventative efforts. The essay also offers suggestions for practical ways to deal with officers who have shown the consequences of these moral dangers. The study also outlines the different categories of law enforcement personnel best suited to set up safeguards against undesirable outcomes related to the ethical risks of policing.

This article’s goal was to give a comprehensive overview of approaches for addressing the moral issues associated with policing. These dangers jeopardize the health of the officers and affect their preparedness for duty. Police administrators who are dedicated to enhancing officer welfare and minimizing misconduct can find answers. Some of these are more straightforward to put into practice than others, and some call for the full cooperation and participation of extra parties. However, the first step is to grasp how ethics and officer welfare are inextricably linked. This point of view can serve as the cornerstone for the implementation of thorough innovations across the board. To do this, police leaders must be prepared to question the established quo. However, these significant adjustments will ultimately enhance both the safety of officers and interactions between law enforcement agencies and the general public.

Jones, B., & Mendieta, E. (Eds.). (2021). The Ethics of Policing: New Perspectives on Law Enforcement. NYU Press.

The objectives of the law enforcement code of ethics and the police code of conduct are covered in this article along with how they are put into practice. Ethics and moral behavior are crucial in the field of law enforcement. Many law enforcement officers take an oath of office based on the law enforcement code of ethics when they graduate. According to the code of ethics, an officer’s primary responsibilities include serving the community, protecting lives and property, standing up for the weak and vulnerable against oppression and intimidation, and upholding everyone’s fundamental right to liberty, equality, and justice.

The code of ethics mandates that officers maintain the integrity of their personal life as well as respect their badge as a representation of the public’s trust in them. The law enforcement code of ethics and the police code of conduct complement one another. The code of conduct stipulates that members of the law enforcement community must uphold moral principles while carrying out their jobs. These guidelines demand that you always maintain professionalism, neutrality, discretion, and honesty. These ethical standards, appropriate training, and strong leadership all serve to inspire law enforcement officers to enter an ethical profession.

One of the ethical problems mentioned in this article is the corruption of police officers. Four recommendations are made to reduce police corruption in law enforcement organizations: strong leadership, adjustments to new officer recruitment and orientation, adjustments to departmental operations, and adjustments to the environment in which the department operates. It also describes the characteristics of police corruption.

Blumberg, D. M., Papazoglou, K., & Creighton, S. (2018). Bruised badges: The moral risks of police work and a call for officer wellness. International Journal of Emergency Mental Health and Human Resilience, 20(2), 1-14.

According to this article, attempts to end all instances of police misbehavior are foolish because a large portion of this activity seems to be an inevitable byproduct of standard police procedures. Instead, it’s critical that police executives are aware of the many things that encourage police misconduct. With this insight, the organization’s culture can be changed in a way that de-stigmatizes less egregious behaviors and renews its commitment to fair and consistent punishment.

The essay presents on the personal trait of integrity and discusses how the job itself may have a detrimental effect on police officers’ integrity. The article also discusses a number of hypotheses that attempt to explain unethical behavior and why a police officer’s personal integrity may deteriorate over time. These justifications serve as the foundation for a variety of prevention and intervention tactics that organizations can use to create more comprehensive plans for tackling misconductBy reinterpreting integrity as a temporary talent rather than a rigid personality feature, police executives can adopt particular modifications to training, supervision, and disciplinary procedures.

Regardless of the underlying reason of police misbehavior, theories that explain unethical decision-making provide a foundation for prevention and intervention techniques. The authors argue that rather than adopting an ad hoc strategy, to continuously combat police misconduct, law enforcement organizations should develop and put into action comprehensive plans and goal-oriented laws. To address and contain the different causes of wrongdoing in the police setting, such programs and policies should embrace the underlying theoretical framework of ethical decision-making. A new narrative arises in which police professionals will no longer highlight the bad apples attitude after learning the numerous reasons why police officers make morally problematic decisions. Police experts will instead begin putting more emphasis on methods for proactively maintaining officers’ integrity as well as ways to enhance organizational and officer wellness.

Blumberg, D. M., Papazoglou, K., & Schlosser, M. D. (2020). The Importance of WE in POWER: Integrating Police Wellness and Ethics. Frontiers in Psychology, 11, 614995.

The writers of this essay present the POWER viewpoint on police wellbeing and ethics. Police Officer Wellness, Ethics, and Resilience is known as POWER. The point of view expresses the idea that morality and health cannot be considered in isolation because they are mutually dependent. Initiatives to address one should always involve the other at the same time. In spite of the fact that organizational problems with welfare and ethics must be addressed, the paper underlines the significance of POWER for individual police personnel. The authors argue that officers should broaden their understanding of their personal wellness to encompass initiatives to uphold moral decision-making.

Police will preserve their psychological well-being, especially when they take proactive steps to avoid conflict and are steadfastly committed to upholding their ethical principles. Additionally, if police adopt a comprehensive wellness program that incorporates resilience-building approaches, they will be considerably less likely to make immoral actions. Additional suggestions for action are provided, and the implications of this issue for law enforcement are examined. The paper emphasizes how crucial it is for police officers to figure out how to avoid some of the ethical dangers of their jobs, which can harm their health and weaken their adherence to moral standards. This entails taking proactive measures to avoid burnout, emotional depletion, and compassion fatigue. Officers reduce their risk of moral disengagement by finding opportunities to engage with and become a part of the community where they operate.

Police officers are seen to be mere mortals despite frequently doing superhero-like tasks, according to another fundamental principle of the POWER viewpoint. Unlike the majority of individuals, cops occasionally make mistakes that have tragic results. The POWER paradigm of wellness, ethics, and resilience allows law enforcement organizations and police officers to view wellbeing more holistically. Officers cannot maintain their health if they do not uphold a persistent commitment to their core values. It is ultimately up to each individual police officer to design a comprehensive wellness and ethics program, even while law enforcement agencies play a crucial role in efforts to improve officers’ welfare and ethics.

Susser, D. (2021). Predictive policing and the ethics of preemption. The Ethics of Policing: New Perspectives on Law Enforcement, 268.

There are many ethical problems and conundrums in police. Police officers don’t practice unethical activity, which frequently results from company culture standards. The ability to rationalize, excuse, and justify unethical behavior while preserving a moral self-image is one benefit of working in law enforcement, though. Various, unrelated definitions of the terms “culture,” “values,” and “norms,” as well as “unconscious and conscious feelings,” are manifested in human conduct. This essay discusses the importance of conflicts between organizational culture and the dynamics of ethical problems unique to public policingThe evolution and content of police culture and ethics are profoundly affected by accountability, especially at the individual level, notwithstanding the evidence offered by structural and procedural theories to the contrary.

In the first place, it deflects issues from organizational origins and places them on the individual. Organizational assessments of issues that can generate circumstances for their resolution are prohibited by the heavy emphasis on individual responsibility. Second, it is said that police will devise tactics to thwart outside investigations into their personal matters in order to protect themselves. Therefore, attempts to impose accountability from without will always result in the dilemma of personal accountability. It will be more challenging to hold officers administratively accountable the more officers are held accountable for how interactions between the police and the public turn out. The theoretical underpinnings of morality are provided by ethics, which also upholds the limits of morality and the channels for rational decision-making in the real world. The distinction between right and wrong is a topic that both ethics and morality are interested in. This article offers a thorough ethical framework within which it is possible to obtain a balanced perspective on policing, the necessity of taking into account issues using all available ways, and the consideration of a wider range of viewpoints.

The police serve as a symbol for the State’s outward presence in civil society. Therefore, the idea that the police should only enforce the law cannot be further from the truth. If this were the case, the police would inevitably become more puppets of the justice system, blindly enforcing the law regardless of its circumstances or repercussions. To help restore order and inflict symbolic justice, the police also employ a number of additional tools, including the law. The article comes to the conclusion that an individual officer’s effectiveness is influenced by the many aspects of acceptable and inappropriate behavior present within the police culture.

Gardner, M., & Weber, M. (Eds.). (2018). The Ethics of Policing and Imprisonment. Palgrave Macmillan.

This essay examines the morality of policing and incarceration, paying specific attention to mass incarceration and police shootings in the US. The authors investigate the effects of less idealized models of punishment and law enforcement on the conclusions drawn from less idealized aspects of the criminal justice system, such as the widespread use of firearms in America, political pressures, racial and gender considerations, and the actual experiences of those who are imprisoned. Several recurring topics can be found in this article’s chapters. One is the opposition between justice idealism and realism. Another is the focus on negative outcomes, including those of encounters with law enforcement and pretrial custody, as well as the negative effects of prisons themselves. The legacy of racism in the United States and how the criminal justice system contributes to racial oppression are the third theme.

Blumberg, D. M., Schlosser, M. D., Papazoglou, K., Creighton, S., & Kaye, C. C. (2019). New directions in police academy training: A call to action. International journal of environmental research and public health, 16(24), 4941.

The goal of this study was to find out how satisfied police officers were with their ethics education. Police officers from county and city law enforcement agencies took part in this study. Ethics education is essential in the realm of law enforcement due to the multiple temptations that officers face and the great amount of power that society grants to the police. The questionnaire for ethics training was created to look at how satisfied officers were with it. Police administrators completed the first of the two portions of the questionnaire, and all study participants completed the second.

The importance of investigating ethics training satisfaction stems from the fact that understanding how ethics training affects police officers can shed light on how valuable the instruction they receive. Administrators can change the training curriculum to meet the demands of their officers if the ethics training doesn’t satisfy the officers. It is intended that by guaranteeing student satisfaction with ethics training, police misconduct will decline, which can lessen the negative consequences of ethics training on police officers, departments, and the community.

Overall, the results indicated that officers are neither content with their ethics training nor dissatisfied with it. The sample mean and the test mean showed no obvious association. This would suggest that the cops were not affected by the ethics training or that it was of poor quality or quantity. Whatever the cause, the study’s participating officers had neither a positive nor negative effect from ethics training.

Droogenbroeck, F. V., Spruyt, B., Kutnjak Ivković, S., & Haberfeld, M. R. (2019). The effects of ethics training on police integrity. In Exploring police integrity (pp. 365-382). Springer, Cham.

The effectiveness of public agencies depends heavily on the moral conduct of public servants. However, it is not frequently the focus of quantitative study. This study adds to our understanding of how street-level bureaucrats, who frequently and unexpectedly face crucial moral decisions, establish the standards that police officers adhere to when it comes to wrongdoing. The causes of unethical behavior as well as ethical behavior must both be taken into account in a thorough analysis of police ethics. On the former, the literature focuses.

This study focuses on the elements that both ethical and unethical action share in common. Using existing data from police officers in thirty police agencies, this study also explores one category of street level bureaucrats, namely police officers, and their attitudes about wrongdoing. The specific subject under investigation is whether a police officer’s propensity to report peer misconduct is primarily influenced by attitudes about misconduct or by personal attributes, peer behavior, the nature of the misconduct, and organizational factors. Using descriptive statistics and regression models, this study concludes that attitudes and the type of misconduct have an impact on an officer’s willingness to disclose wrongdoing.

Franklin, A. S., Perkins, R. K., Kirby, M. D., & Richmond, K. P. (2019). The influence of police related media, victimization, and satisfaction on African American college students’ perceptions of police. Frontiers in sociology, 4, 65.

Police decision-making and ethics are a topic of concern for both academic researchers and law enforcement officials. There has been minimal research on how young people view police ethical decision-making, whereas earlier studies focused on how people regarded police officers. This essay aims to record these viewpoints from a group of college students majoring in criminal justice. To find out what they thought about various ethical facets of police work, such as the prevalence of misconduct and the impact of higher education on moral judgment, a survey of undergraduate criminal justice students was performed. Additionally, the impact of passing a course in criminal justice ethics on attitudes was investigated. Additionally, the impact of misconduct and unethical actions on relationships with the public and community ties was investigated. This article also discusses the ramifications for policy.

This project’s main objective was to assess how criminal justice students perceived police wrongdoing. Since many criminal justice students go on to become law enforcement officers, it is plausible to infer from the article that it is crucial for academic and professional communities to better understand how these students see immoral behavior. A secondary goal of this study was to evaluate the perceived impact of college degree training on police.

The results of this survey show that opinions of police misbehavior as an increasing problem are closely related to a number of student demographics and perceptions. According to multivariate analysis, the only two significant demographic factors associated with the dependent variable were student race and student classification. Particularly, non-white seniors and students are more inclined to believe that police misconduct is on the rise. Students who believe that unethical decision-making encourages unethical behavior are also more inclined to believe that police misbehavior is on the rise. Last but not least, multivariate studies supported the role of police discretionary power in encouraging wrongdoing. The primary goals of this study were to gather student perceptions of police misconduct and to identify factors that were significantly correlated with the dependent variable. However, the study also aimed to evaluate the overall effectiveness of a criminal justice course in changing these perceptions. According to the findings of this study, a criminal justice ethics course does not appear to increase student agreement on the frequency of police misbehavior.. Instead, graduates of the course seem to think that wrongdoing and corruption in the police force are less serious problems.

Sun, I. Y., Wu, Y., Van Craen, M., & Hsu, K. K. L. (2018). Internal procedural justice, moral alignment, and external procedural justice in democratic policing. Police quarterly, 21(3), 387-412.

Because of the regrettable and frequently fatal confrontations between police officers and people of color since 2015, policing has received bad press. As a result of these tragic incidents, numerous initiatives have been implemented in many police agencies to boost officers’ professionalism. One such program aims to increase legitimacy by instructing officers in procedural justice principles. In this study, organizational fairness was examined in relation to how it impacts officers in terms of procedural justice. The policemen and sergeants employed by two small municipal police departments in the Midwest of the United States are the focus of this study, which builds on prior research. In order to assess the study’s hypotheses, 98 individuals from the two departments were assembled and given surveys. A template established by Van Craen and Skogan in 2017 was used to generate the survey. The survey looked into participants’ self-reported attitudes and beliefs regarding procedural fairness. Building on past research, this study focuses on the officers and sergeants employed by two small municipal police departments in the Midwest of the United States. 98 participants from the two departments were gathered and given surveys in order to test the study’s hypotheses. The survey was created using a template created by Van Craen and Skogan in 2017. The study investigated the self-reported thoughts and opinions of participants about procedural justice as well as their sense of organizational fairness and citizen treatment. Multiple regression analysis, factorial analysis of covariance, and correlational analysis were all utilized to demonstrate and assess the relationships between internal and external procedural justice and the elements of fairness in discipline, job assignment, and promotions. The findings of this study suggest that police officers who receive fair treatment from their employers are more inclined to treat people with decency and justice. Small municipal police departments’ organizational dynamics, which are commonly understudied and have a variety of effects on policing organizations, are explained in this paper.

Because most comparable research have focused on larger police departments in the United States or national police forces in other countries, the purpose of this study was to determine whether internal procedural justice has an impact on external procedural justice in smaller police departments. Finding out whether police officers’ perceptions of internal procedural justice dynamics affected how they dealt with and interacted with the public was the main goal of this study. It also looked into whether internal factors, such as fairness in hiring, promotion, and discipline, affected how police officers interacted with the public when applying exterior procedural justice. This part gives five separate conclusions based on the three research questions posed and the information received, further summarizing the findings of the current study.

Miller, H. (2021). Police occupational culture and bullying. Special topics and particular occupations, professions and sectors, 387-413.

As we read our newspapers or watch our evening news on television, we are startled by accounts of employees who seem to be aware of unlawful, immoral, or illegitimate behaviors at their workplaces yet choose to keep quiet about these activities. There appears to be a gap in the literature when it comes to research that looks at perceptions of wrongdoing and/or definitions of what constitutes wrongdoing, despite new information being provided by academics about organizational whistle-blowing processes and how to manage those processes. The current article fills that gap by making the case that a person’s lack of whistle blowing behavior might not be the result of a deliberate choice to engage in unethical or illegal behavior in an effort to conceal wrongdoing, but rather might be the result of a robust socialization process that internalizes a shared meaning and perceptions of acceptable activities or behaviors. According to research, police enforcement agencies have one of the most effective socialization processes of any kind. This article will concentrate on how the police officer’s perception of what constitutes an illegal and/or unethical behavior is affected by law enforcement’s robust socialization process.

This study is the first to look at the attitudes and behaviors of law enforcement professionals, which broadens the external validity of the whistle-blowing and code of silence studies. According to the study, obligatory reporting policies, a characteristic that was previously unresearched, are consistently associated with whistleblower willingness, and supervisory rank is associated with various measures of both whistleblower willingness and frequency. The study found that police were somewhat less likely than civilian public employees to uphold a code of silence, which is in direct conflict with descriptive literature and popular opinion that police uphold a code of silence to protect one another.

Taylor, J. (2018). Internal whistle‐blowing in the public service: A matter of trust. Public Administration Review, 78(5), 717-726.

This article presents the results of a study that looks at the factors influencing police willingness to disclose misconduct and frequency of reporting misconduct on seven different counts. We specifically look at nine policy and structural variables’ capacity to forecast whistleblowing. The findings show that the two factors that reliably predict whistleblowing are a policy requiring the reporting of misconduct and supervisory status. Contrary to popular opinion, the findings also indicate that police are marginally less likely than civilian public employees to adhere to a code of silence.

Future research might investigate whistleblowing practices in other states, federal agencies, and commercial businesses to assess the external validity of the conclusions provided here. It would be possible to evaluate and contrast the effects of inspector general offices, offices of special counsel, and internal affairs units on whistleblowing through research encompassing numerous states. The impact of elected vs appointed agency heads and other local governmental structures on the practice of whistleblowing may also be studied in public sector research.

Future studies can concentrate on the impact of legal protections against whistleblower retaliation. To reduce the effects of socially desirable reactions that skew data and weaken past studies addressing the positive effects of organization size on whistleblowing, future studies may also use interviews or experimental designs. Additionally, this study emphasizes the necessity for additional research to define or address this consistency.