5 Population Health 1 Population Health: Part 1 The entire world was

5

Population Health 1

Population Health: Part 1

The entire world was recently stroked with a pandemic caused by Coronavirus disease (COVID 19). Covid 19 has had adverse effects on all population groups. It has had a super high prevalence rate before vaccines’ introduction, somewhat containing the situation in the present day. According to the New York Times, the most brutal hit in the United States was on January 12, 2021, when the reported daily average case was 251,232. This pandemic affects everyone, but people with compromised immune systems are most at risk, such as cancer patients. The immune system could be compromised with various comorbidities. The oncology population at risk deserves protection by educating them about their condition and risk factors to Covid 19.

Description of the Population at Risk

COVID 19’s population at risk is individuals with cancer with compromised immune systems. The main factor that causes immunocompromised systems in cancer patients is a low white blood cell count (Wbc). Other individuals with pre-existing health conditions include diabetes, hypertension, asthma, cancer, and many other diseases that can also cause an immunocompromised system (Booth et al., 2021). This category of individuals risk losing their lives to COVID 19 if they are infected; measures should thus be put in place to ensure they are not infected and follow the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommendations. Overall, a person with active cancer and a decreased immune system can easily be infected and succumb to the disease before treatment is even initiated.

Interstate Distribution of Populations at Risk

The populations are distributed almost equally across all states, thus nullifying the argument that one state is at more risk than the others since cancer is generally worldwide. COVID 19 is also not secluded more to one area versus another. Many factors go into why one state has more cases versus others. It spreads quicker in densely populated areas than sparsely populated regions since it is difficult to maintain social distance in a densely populated region. Besides having an immunocompromised system from cancer, other comorbidities may cause a weakened immune system from state to state. The entire population is at risk of contracting the infection, but the effects of the disease will be severe in people with weakened immune systems. In sum, people with compromised immune systems are at greater risk and distributed almost equally across all states.

Social Determinants for Health Outcomes

Social determinants of health outcomes are fundamental aspects of public and population health. With the advent of COVID 19, these social determinants again determine the management of the populations and the health outcomes. There is a long list of these social determinants: socioeconomic status, culture, family, education, religion, marginalization, gender, ethnicity, race, and many others (Islam, 2019). These social determinants may vary the population at risk; for instance, people living in poverty may also become part of the population at risk because they cannot afford health insurance to be treated for health issues. In summary, one must not be blind to these social determinants of health when talking of populations at risk since they vary the population at risk directly or indirectly.

In addition, social determinants may create significant variation if a comparison is made between in a similar area. These factors introduce the concept of vulnerability which either restructures the original combination of the population at risk or adds to it. The vulnerable race, the marginalized, those with barbaric religious practices all become part of the population at Risk (Islam, 2019). Some religious practices follow their own beliefs in treating a disease that may cause a delay in proper treatment; thus, compromising their immunity, which introduces them to the population at risk. Overall, social determinants create a significant change in the population at risk, not only COVID 19.

Evidence-Based Interventions to Improve Treatment Outcomes

Evidence-based interventions entail making decisions based on the best available evidence to comprehensively care for the patient on a scientific foundation. Systemic implementation of the evidence-based intervention is pivotal in improving patient health outcomes at all levels, from hospital to community to personal levels. Evidence-based intervention is particularly significant among’ community nurses since it enables them to comprehensively care for their patients remotely, thereby improving public health (S. Li, Cao, & Zhu, 2019). In the COVID 19 crisis, community nurses guided by evidence-based interventions are vital in controlling community transmissions and mortality rates among the populations at risk. In brief, comprehensive implementation of evidence-based practice is essential in improving treatment outcomes.

Online Information Available on COVID 19

Since COVID 19 was a novel disease on the planet, there was a dire need for research and information to be provided for the public to learn about the condition. Several online publications have been made from different health organizations, the World Health Organization (WHO) spearheading it all. The World Health Organization provides real-time updates on the new information about COVID 19 on their website (World Health Organization, 2021). The online publication of this information ensures the public has ideas of signs, remote management, and they know how to protect themselves from infections. In sum, information is power, and providing it to the public empowers the public.

COVID 19 pandemic has wreaked great havoc in the medical field, especially those caring for high-risk patients. Strides have been made in containing it, yet the world is not out of the woods since new strands of the virus have and could continue to emerge. Evidence-based interventions have been instrumental in caring for the population at risk and the entire population. Alongside other medical organizations, governments have played a leading role in public education about the novel COVID 19, which has helped in its containment.

References

Booth, A., Reed, A. B., Ponzo, S., Yassaee, A., Aral, M., Plans, D., . . . Mohan, D. (2021). Population risk factors for severe disease and mortality in COVID-19: A global systematic review and meta-analysis. PLOS ONE, 16(3). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0247461

Clark, A., Jit, M., Warren-Gash, C., Guthrie, B., Wang, H. H. X., Mercer, S. W., . . . Jarvis, C. I. (2020). Global, regional, and national estimates of the population at increased risk of severe COVID-19 due to underlying health conditions in 2020: A modeling study. The Lancet Global Health, 8(8), e1003–e1017. https://doi.org/10.1016/s2214-109x(20)30264-3

Islam, M. M. (2019). Social determinants of health and related inequalities: Confusion and implications. Frontiers in Public Health. Published. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2019.00011

Li, S., Cao, M., & Zhu, X. (2019). Evidence-based practice. Medicine, 98(39). https://doi.org/10.1097/md.0000000000017209

The New York Times (2021). Coronavirus in the US. Retrieved from

https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2021/us/covid-cases.html

World Health Organization. (2021). WHO Coronavirus (COVID-19) Dashboard. Retrieved from https://covid19.who.int/