( above the photo is the instructions on what needs to be

( above the photo is the instructions on what needs to be done and from the photo down are helpful things from the book to help you write the paper. It should be one page long and numbered step 1- step 5)

Decision Making

Take a current situation you are dealing with (ideally workplace related) and integrating each step in the decision-making model, come to a decision. To receive full credit, in your submission, you must explicitly state and integrate each step (e.g., step 1:xxx; step 2:xxx, etc.) and also share how creativity assisted you in your final decision. You will not receive credit if you simply repeat what is in the text and/or not present step-by-step as requested. Students do not frequently receive full credit on this assignment because they do not PROPERLY reflect each step in the decision-making process (they simply write about a recent decision) and do not follow the directions. I want you to receive full credit.

HINT: Ensure you know and your paper reflects each step in the decision-making process (Model 10.2).

( above the photo is the instructions on what needs to be done and from the photo down are helpful things from the book to help you write the paper. It should be one page long and numbered step 1- step 5)

When to Use the Decision-Making Model

The key to effective decision-making is knowing when to make quick reflective decisions (without the model) versus consistent (using the model). Decisions can be classified as routine and nonroutine decisions, and structured and unstructured decisions. It is not necessary to follow all five steps in the model when making unimportant recurring decisions when the outcome of the decision is known, called certainty. Risk taking is fundamental to decision-making. Use the model when making important nonrecurring decisions when the outcome is risky or uncertain.

The model uses a scientific method of reduction to focus on the steps to reach a decision. Following the model increases the probability of successful decision-making. You most likely followed the steps in the model when selecting a college without consciously knowing it. If you consciously use the model for important decisions, you will improve your ability to make decisions. Let’s examine each step here. as shown in Model 10.2.

Step 1: Define the Problem

If you misdiagnose the problem, you will not solve it; so slow down. Be careful of perception problems (Chapter 2) that can result in misjudging people and situations. Know the facts. In analyzing a problem, first distinguish the symptoms from the cause of the problem. To do so, list the observable and describable occurrences (symptoms) that indicate a problem exists. If a car will not start, that is a symptom. What is the cause of the car not starting-battery? If Hank comes to work late. that is a symptom. What is the cause-car trouble?

Step 2: Set Objectives and Criteria

Set an objective, which is the end result of the decision to solve the problem. Refer to Chapter 7 for the setting objectives model.

Next, you identify the criteria the decision must meet to achieve the objective. It is helpful to specify must and want criteria. Must criteria have to be met, while want criteria are desirable but not necessary. For example: Objective: “To hire a store manager by June 30, 2021.” The must criteria are a college degree and a minimum of five years’ experience as a store manager. The want criterion is that the hiree should be a minority group member. The organization wants to hire a minority but will not hire one who does not meet the must criteria.

Step 3: Generate Alternatives

There is usually not just one way to succeed, but many ways to fail. So you need to generate possible alternatives for solving the problem.” When making nonroutine decisions, new and creative solutions are often needed. In the next section, we discuss creativity, which is commonly part of generating alternatives.

Our cognitive limits prevent us from collecting complete information on every alternative, especially in complex uncertainty situations with multiple alternatives, often called bounded rationality. However, you must get enough information to enable you to make good decisions- the consistent decision style-and it should be evidence-based. It is often helpful to ask others for advice on possible solutions to your problem.

When generating alternatives, it is important not to evaluate them at the same time (evaluation is in step 4)-just list anything reasonable that can possibly solve the problem or create new opportunities.

Step 4: Analyze Alternatives and Select One

Here you must evaluate each alternative in terms of the objectives and criteria. Think forward and try to predict the outcome of each alternative. One method you can use to analyze alternatives is cost- benefit analysis. Each alternative has its positive and its negative aspects, or its costs and benefits. Costs are more than monetary. They may include a sacrifice of time, money, and so forth. Cost-benefit analysis has become popular where the benefits are often difficult to determine in quantified dollars. The benefits of a college degree are more than just a paycheck.

Another approach to improving the quality of decisions is the devil’s advocate approach. The devil’s advocate technique requires the individual to explain and defend his or her position before the group. The group critically asks the presenter questions. They try to shoot holes in the alternative solution to determine any possible problems in its implementation. After a period of time, the group reaches a refined solution.

Step 5: Plan, Implement the Decision, and Control

Making the decision to solve a problem or take advantage of an opportunity is useless without step 5,134 which has three separate parts, as the title states. Strategies are often well developed, but poorly implemented. Lack of planning is a common reason why decisions, including New Year’s resolutions, are not implemented. So after making the decision, you should develop a plan of action with a schedule for its implementation.

As with all plans, controls should be developed while planning. Checkpoints with feedback should be established to determine whether the decision is solving the problem. If not, corrective action may be needed. You should not be locked into an irrational escalation of commitment to a decision that is not solving the problem. When you make a poor decision, you should admit the mistake and change the decision by going back to previous steps in the decision-making model.