Annotated bibliography: Flooding in the US

Flooding in the U.S.

National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. (2019). Framing the Challenge of Urban Flooding in the United States. National Academies Press.

The author critically evaluates flooding in a chronological sequence. According to the author, flooding is a natural hazard with social and economic implications that are felt each day. It mostly emanates from catastrophic hurricanes that have hit the nation. Examples of these devastating calamities are the Superstorm Sandy that occurred in 2012 in New York and Hurricane Harvey that hit Houston in 2007 (National Academies Press, 2009). All these have led to urban flooding, thus affecting the operations of the major cities in the U.S.

According to the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, the flooding contributed to immense losses. To determine this, data from the National Flood Insurance Food Program postulates that losses in densely populated areas are significantly higher than in other areas. Individuals living in such areas are laden with property, food, and loss of lives. The researchers provide a flood risk assessment that entails four issues, namely, flood hazard, exposure, vulnerability, and hazard. Undeniably, these are the significant issues to consider when evaluating urban flooding and the damages caused. Thus, this implies that an exposed area to a calamity is likely to experience a disastrous loss of property, lives, and food when it happens.

The resource provides crucial information about understanding the challenges urban people face emanating from floods. Examples of the prominent hurricanes are provided to expound more about this issue at hand. Besides, it pinpoints the various factors that contribute to the severity of flooding. This includes critical information to evaluate the intervention mechanisms by planners and governments to prevent the severe effects of flooding. Also, the resource is produced by a collection of learned individuals to bring their diverse expertise in ensuring that flooding causation and mitigation mechanisms are addressed. Hence, this is a crucial scholarly resource for study.


Du, W., FitzGerald, G., Clark, M., & Hou, X. (2010). Health Impacts of Floods. Prehospital and Disaster Medicine, 25(3), 265-272. Doi: 10.1017/S1049023X00008141

            According to Du et al., floods are the leading hazards that contribute to morbidity and mortality globally. The factors that directly impact the occurrence of a wave are the location as well as the topography of the land. Other factors are human demographics as well as the structures built in that topography. To evaluate the underlying health impacts linked with flood calamities, a conceptual framework has been developed to evaluate a rational mechanism to explain the ways to prevent, improve, and manage this hazard. The authors develop a literature review of about 500 sources to assess critically and develop a comprehensive data to get various concepts even from experts in this field(Du, FitzGerald, Clark, & Hou, 2010). The ability to retrieve experts’ opinions and reviews is a crucial move to ensure that reliable and robust information is obtained.

            The document provides a list of health risks associated with floods. Firstly, floods may cause drowning and the death of individuals. In turn, this affects their health well-being resulting in the emergence of water-related illnesses. Secondly, this resource points out that excessive flooding causes injuries. In this regard, individuals injure themselves when structures such as buildings fall and wound people in those structures. Other risks are hypothermia as well as animal bites. In the long term, this leads to infectious diseases, disability among people, and starvation.

This is an original article in various ways. First, it explains the direct risks associated with flooding that face people. Secondly, it develops a conceptual framework that describes the intervention, prevention, and management mechanisms to deal with frequent floods. The critical aspect is that it provides a wide range of references or academic resources that expound on the area. This ensures that a piece of comprehensive and detailed information is available for study.

Brody, S. D., Highfield, W. E., & Kang, J. E. (2011). Rising waters: The causes and consequences of flooding in the United States. Cambridge University Press.

The authors examine flooding by referring to the Houston, Texas flooding that was detrimental to the economy of the town, loss of lives, and destruction of homes and property. From the article, floods are more hazardous than a combination of tornadoes, wildfires, and earthquakes. This shows that this issue causes severe problems for individuals in the city, rendering them have unbearable lives. The Federal government has enacted mitigation policies to manage this frequent flooding. However, severe damages are still witnessed where lots of property are lost. Property worth billions of dollars is destroyed by the floods that hit the state.

The authors posit that there is a need to improve on decision making and work towards development-based planning on flooding. Although the U.S. has witnessed the devastating effects of this rainfall, nothing has been done to manage the problem. Also, it samples out Texas and Florida as the most prone areas that experience flooding is owing to their proximity to the coastal Gulf of Mexico. The cities have experienced tremendous population growth that makes the dwellers more vulnerable. However, communities have developed mitigation capabilities to prevent themselves from future floods.

The information provided by this article is suitable for the study as it explains the challenges that people face in the cities of Florida and Texas when floods hit their areas. Additionally, the authors have provided critical examples that would enable data and figures to analyze the flood impact.

Mike Ahern, R. Sari Kovats, Paul Wilkinson, Roger Few, Franziska Matthies, Global Health Impacts of Floods: Epidemiologic Evidence, Epidemiologic Reviews, Volume 27, Issue 1, July 2005, Pages 36–46,

According to Mike et al., flood disasters are much evidenced in the developed as well as the developing countries. This article is comprehensive in handling the various floods that have happened globally. Besides, waves are classified depending on their cause and nature. The occurrence of these foods has a direct impact on the health of the people. For instance, it contributes to calamity-caused deaths, injuries, fecal-oral infections, and other vector-borne diseases.

The article provides crucial information that relates to the risks associated with floods. The issue of deaths still ensues in this case where individuals either drown or are carried by flash floods. The authors assert that older women and men are at the high risk of being affected by the floods. The information in this article addresses the need to be cautious from the effects of disastrous floods.

Therefore, this article provides essential data for the study process. It evaluates the epidemiologic reviews to explain the occurrence of floods and the risks associated with them. Additionally, it pinpoints some of the global happenings or flood cases that had adverse impacts on the people.