Bridge W4 Response

, 2014). Children with CP experience activity, sensory, perceptual, cognitive, communicative, and behavioral problems. Prognosis depends on the level of developmental delay, and often, children need assistance with mobility and activities of daily living, such as bathing and feeding. In addition, those with CP require therapies such as physical, speech, and occupational, along with multiple medications and surgeries to improve function. Parents and families of children with CP must adjust their lives to care for the various needs of this chronic condition. Children with CP are dependent for life, and parents either take on the task alone or use resources such as home health nursing or prescribed pediatric extended care (PPEC).The Centers for Disease Control (CDC) state that the estimated cost of lifetime care for someone with CP is almost $1 million (2020). The CDC also points out that medical costs for children with CP are ten times higher than those without CP (2020). Kamaralzaman et al. highlight four types of expenses families incur when caring for children with CP, and not all of them are covered by health insurances (2018). First, direct healthcare costs include rehabilitation services, medicine, diagnostic tests, consultation, and surgery fees, which amount to the “highest-burden” of all types (Kamaralzaman et al., 2018). Direct non-healthcare costs include transportation and accommodation costs. Third, development costs include nursing aids, special education, dietary supplements like formulas, gastric tubes, feeding pumps, daily necessities like diapers, wet tissues, and special lotions and soaps. Finally, indirect costs for parent and child and total productivity loss when parents take unpaid leave or resign from their jobs to care for their child.The economic impact of family caregiving for individuals with CP takes a toll on family resources over time. If parents do not have stellar health insurance, many of the costs mentioned are paid out of pocket. As children age and turn 18 years old, they lose the benefits they received as children and must transfer services to adult facilities and insurance programs. Mothers of children with CP have poorer mental health and physical outcomes than mothers of children who do not (Shih et al., 2018). From personal experience, parents of children with CP that I have cared for express those concerns. They state that they feel “exhausted,” “burnt-out,” and “struggling” to find resources for themselves and their children. Over time, caregiving becomes physically challenging as the child grows, and some parents express that “it was easier when they were a baby, but now [the child] weighs more than me.” Costs do not decrease over time, and adults with CP still have higher medical and out-of-pocket expenses than those without CP (Whitney et al., 2019).Response 2:            A chronic illness represents a long-lasting mental or physical disorder that necessitates constant treatment or monitoring and causes functional restrictions. Chronic diseases constitute the United States’ costliest and prevalent health conditions, and approximately half of all Americans have at least one chronic illness (Raghupathi