Background and significance of Atrial Fibrillation
Atrial Fibrillation is a cardiac rhythm disturbance which increases as age progresses. Moreover, it involves other chronic conditions and heart diseases. The mechanisms which cause AF can be difficult and complicated for clinicians to manage. Therefore, the ACC and AHA Task Force on 2014 practice guidelines establish revised guidelines on maximum management of AF. Thus, the new guidelines introduce new and existing knowledge, which extracts from basic science, new drugs, clinical trials, comprehensive articles as well as treatment strategies in managing Atrial Fibrillation. (January et.al, 2014)
Furthermore, symptoms of AF change from less to severe. The typical sign is fatigue as well as loss of atrial contraction, which decreases cardiac output. It also leads to frequent hospitalization, mortality, hemodynamic abnormalities, and morbidity, which results in higher chances of stroke as age advances. Therefore, to ensure better efficiency, AF tools on the web are available for measuring its detection. They include; clinical decision aids and risk calculators which could be useful in managing it. Also, AF can be caused by structural abnormalities, obesity, hypertension, Fibrosis, use of drugs and alcohol as well as sleep apnea.
The rationale for the clinical practice guideline-revision
The clinical guidelines revision is essential in the advanced evaluation of an AF patient’s clinical history and physical examination. Besides, it determines the cause of AF, in assessing risks and defining related cardiac and extracardiac diseases as well as early detection to prevent heart attack, strokes, and death. Moreover, family history of the patient and prior treatment aids in reviewing similar conditions and risks, which are recorded and addressed in clinical practice. Therefore, the ECG is the appropriate tool for confirming Atrial Fibrillation.
Also, clinical guidelines revision, aid in advance laboratory evaluation, which includes the assessment of serum electrolytes, blood count and hepatic function. Thus Echocardiography is used as a guide in timing cardioversion as well as Electrophysiological study which is crucial in initiating AF. Nevertheless, frequent and prolonged monitoring as per the clinical guidelines is necessary for revealing symptoms of asymptomatic AF. Consequently, Antithrombotic medications prevent stroke among patients by decreasing thrombotic clots. (January et.al, 2014)
Nevertheless, the introduction of Warfarin, an antagonist drug, is effective in preventing stroke among Atrial Fibrillation patients. Furthermore, rate control is a vital strategy which reduces morbidity and impacts the quality of life; clinicians are supposed to consider the degree of symptoms in a patient as well as hemodynamic status. They should discuss issues such as attainment of rate control and the required degree of rate control. The clinical guidelines should select and apply optimal heart rate targets and a rate control strategy to enhance individual patients’ considerations in preventing AF and setting up early detection awareness on high-risk adults.
The statement on questions addressed
The previous decade shows excellent progress in the understanding of AF mechanisms, symptoms, medication as well as clinical guidelines on maintaining sinus rhythm and the introduction of new drugs for the prevention of stroke. Thus, long-term management of AF supports and restores rhythm control. The questions addressed about Atrial Fibrillation leads to advanced research on heart diseases and early detection techniques in preventing stroke among AF patients (January et.al, 2014).
Consequently, further research and studies are needed to inform clinicians about risks of AF and benefits of initial treatment as well as therapy options to an individual high-adult patient. Also, continued studies are required in the mechanisms that sustain and initiate AF.