1. Reflective Journal

Article#1: Alrubaishi, McAdam, & Harrison, 2021

The authors focus on the influence of the Islamic culture on families with established and continuous businesses. Alrubaishi et al. (2021) argue that the objective of Saudi Arabian families starting and running firms enables them to remain united. When the writers talk of the family, they mean both nuclear and extended ones. The Islamic culture allows men to marry more than one wife, and men can have up to four wives (Alrubaishi et al., 2021). Therefore, the family is always large. The family is extended when it includes the in-laws and their relatives. The authors argue that the strategy to ensure every member contributes to the family’s betterment is managing businesses together.

One of the issues the authors raise is that the purpose of most Saudi Arabian families is to establish businesses. The objective is to unite family members from one generation to another. According to Alrubaishi et al. (2021), a family with significant wealth created from various enterprises will do everything to shun disputes. Such families must identify practical strategies to maintain harmony among members. Every member understands their goal is to build and protect the family’s wealth (Alrubaishi et al., 2021). In this way, the Saudi Arabian families ensure their posterity finds significant wealth they can inherit and pass to the next generation.

The source is significant because it illustrates how families remain together for many years. The Islamic culture allows men to start families and lead them based on agreed social norms and values. For example, the father is the head of the family but can seek assistance from seniors in the extended family or community (Alrubaishi et al., 2021). The nuclear and extended family mentality has enabled Saudi Arabian families to unite. Furthermore, the entrepreneurship goals make their families even more united.

Article#2: Dunst, 2022

The source focuses on a two-parent family whose leader is a father. Also, the author includes a single-parent family whose head can be a mother or a father. Dunst (2022) argues that the insufficiency of British family resources determines parents’ beliefs. Also, the same factor determines practices, burden, and engagement. The writer intends for leaders to understand the availability of resources plays a vital role in how parents raise their children in the UK. Insufficient resources make parents perceive their families as a burden (Dunst, 2022). It limits the engagement parents have with their children. Hence, it leads to significant social and economic risks.

The author raises the issue of resources and how significant it is to maintaining traditional or diversified modern families. According to Dunst (2022), UK parents with inadequate resources may have undesirable practices. The conduct could risk the social and economic well-being of children. Such parents do not have the desire to engage with their children more. The parents focus on accumulating the resources needed to take care of the family. Such a family believes inadequate resources prevent members from being happy as they should be (Dunst, 2022). Children in families with limited capital may perceive their parents as overburdened if they struggle economically.

The source is significant because it communicates the essentiality of the availability of resources in modern UK families. It indicates that families cannot be happy without sufficient income. Hence, such UK families may not have strong social bonds as those with more resources. Arguably, economic capacity is one of the factors determining the cohesiveness of a modern UK family. The father, mother, and children require money to engage in consumerism advocated by their society (Dunst, 2022). Lack of resources makes parents and children adopt disempowering beliefs and perceive a family setup as a burden.

Article#3: Nasser, 2019

The author focuses on the influence of the royal family in Saudi Arabia. Nasser (2019) explains that the royal family members tend to be united and focus on accomplishing stipulated social and economic goals. The head of the royal family is the king, the queen, and princes and princesses. Also, the family includes extended family members and other kinsmen and kinswomen. The author has decided to explore the Saudi Arabian royal family from an economic perspective. According to Nasser (2019), publically listed organizations in Saudi Arabia consist of self-determining Noble household members as part of the BoD. The writer determines if the presence of the royal members in BoD influences organizational performance and value.

The author raises the issue of powerful families in a country. The writer intends for readers to understand a family can have significant political and economic influences. Such a family has an advantage over other families with minimal or no political and economic powers. Nasser (2019) illustrates the political and economic advantages of the Saudi Arabian royal family via the opportunities they get in publically listed companies. Almost everyone coming from the Saudi Arabia Royal family can become a member of the board of directors in local or even foreign companies (Nasser, 2019). The economic opportunities empower the royal family members, leading to more power and influence.

The source is significant because it highlights the issue of privileged and underprivileged families. The author may not have intended to present the royal family as privileged, but the economic and political connections explained in the article prove so. The independent members of the royal family can enter any publically listed business and exert influence on the board (Nasser, 2019). Ordinary families in Saudi Arabia do not have such a privileged. Hence, the resource confirms the presence of two family setups. One of them is privileged, and the other is underprivileged.

Article#4: Zhang & Li, 2019

The authors explain the influence the extended family has on grandchildren. The writers maintain the economic situation of grandchildren has a significant impact on the lives of grandchildren in modern British society. According to Zhang and Li (2019), the economic prosperity of the grandparents plays a crucial role in how young people live their lives. The youths have laid-back attitudes if their grandparents accumulated significant resources. The wealthy grandchildren can aspire to work in the most profitable careers. Also, the grandchildren tend to attend the best learning institutions and attain better grades (Zhang & Li, 2019). Simultaneously, the grandchildren can decide to pursue self-employment if their grandparents were self-employed.

The source raises the issues of privileged families and their extended members. It influences readers to reflect on the role of privilege in families. Also, readers ponder concerning the disadvantaged grandparents and the outcomes for their grandchildren. It appears that privileged extended families tend to do better in life than underprivileged ones. Grandchildren from deprived backgrounds struggle to get the best education and work in fulfilling careers like their wealthy counterparts (Zhang & Li, 2019). Likewise, the underprivileged grandchildren do not possess sufficient resources to be self-employed.

Their resource is significant because it illustrates the prevalent economic advantages and disadvantages affecting the current UK young generation. The source confirms the existence of two families based on their economic capacities. One is wealth and ready to pass accumulated resources to the next generation (Zhang & Li, 2019). On the other hand, the other is deprived or lacks significant capital to pass on to the grandchildren. As such, contemporary UK society struggles with class divisions resulting from ancestral economic backgrounds.

2. Evaluating Summary

A family is a historical unit of almost every society in the world. A typical family consists of two parents and their children. Also, the family can be extended to include grandparents, uncles, aunts, cousins, and nephews. The genesis of forming a family is marriage or adoption. Therefore, a family can consist of individuals related by blood or adoption. The culture and norms in different parts of the world allow men to be the head of the families. The family where the father is the head tends to be the nuclear one. The singleparent family can have either the father or the mother as the head of the household. The reflective journal entailed an analysis of several articles related to the UK and Saudi Arabia families. Hence, the findings indicate the UK and Saudi Arabian families share more similarities than differences. The families consist of different nuclear and extended members, and cohesion relies on economic capacities.

Families are united and assist each member to succeed in life most of the time. The father set the tone of the family, and the rest can follow. However, in a single-parent family, the mother or the father decides the direction of the family. In the UK, the head of most families is the father, assisted by the mother to manage the household (Alrubaishi et al., 2021). Nonetheless, the family set up in the UK is changing because of increased single parenthood. It is typical to see a mother with her children without the father in the picture living happily as a family. It is the same case for a father who takes care of children without their mother. According to Dunst (2022), the economic difficulties have contributed to typically nuclear families disintegrating. Parents struggling financially may leave their families to seek better economic opportunities. At the same time, parents may divorce, leading to increased single-parent families rampant in the UK.

Saudi Arabia consists of families headed by a father. The Islamic religion allows men to marry four wives if they can afford it. Therefore, the Saudi Arabian family is larger than the typical UK family. Alrubaishi et al. (2021) explain that Islamic culture and norms do not espouse divorce and family separation. Therefore, the number of single-parent families in Saudi Arabia is less than in the UK (Dunst, 2022). The observation of families in Saudi Arabia in public spaces confirms the cohesion of the nuclear and extended family. As an illustration, a family man walks with his wives and children. An observer can tell who is in charge of the family members. The father tends to issue instructions, and the rest of the family members follow them to the letter (Alrubaishi et al. (2021). The mother and children do what their father says but can contribute whenever necessary.

The UK and Saudi Arabian families can either be wealthy or underprivileged. The economic factor in families from the two countries plays a crucial role in members’ cohesion. For example, the Saudi Arabian royal family could have disintegrated a long time ago. The family could have ended if it did not establish businesses to unite its members. According to Alrubaishi et al. (2021), one of the unification factors in Saudi Arabian families involves establishing and operating a family enterprise. Members prefer to identify family disputes and solve them on time. Hence, the proactive action prevents disharmony and the failure of the family businesses. In the case of the Saudi Arabian royal family, members support each other to work in publically listed organizations (Nasser, 2019). The royal family members influence decisions made by the BoD. The UK family is not different from Saudi Arabian families in using resources to remain united. The UK families operate family businesses like their counterparts in Saudi Arabia.

The UK families have operated family businesses for centuries. Wealthy grandparents confirm the discipline needed to manage a family business. According to Zhang and Li (2019), in the mid-20th century, average UK families started to accumulate significant wealth because of more industrialization. The privileged families consolidated their wealth and enabled passing it to posterity. The UK royal family is an example of a wealthy family that has operated family businesses and instilled the same attitude in their grandchildren.

However, the UK and Saudi Arabia have many families with limited resources (Dunst, 2022). The families have not succeeded in starting and operating businesses. Subsequently, the UK and Saudi Arabia consist of underprivileged families without resources to pass on to the next generation. The economic divisions among families in the UK and Saudi Arabia should prompt governments to find a lasting solution (Nasser, 2019). The administration should create more education and economic opportunities to equate families.

The reflective journal indicates two families exist in the UK and Saudi Arabia. The privileged family unites based on blood and economic ties. On the other hand, the underprivileged remain united based on blood ties alone. As a result, the struggling families in both countries may disintegrate while their counterparts continue to prosper generation after another (Zhang & Li, 2019). Underprivileged families must work extra hard to earn a living to provide education and economic opportunities to their members. The effort may not produce desired outcomes, leading to separation through long-distance work or divorce (Dunst, 2022). It is rational to argue that families in the UK and Saudi Arabia requires resources to perpetuate the typical family setup. It is a practical way to mitigate the increase of single-parent widespread in the UK.

The UK has more single parents than Saudi Arabia because of contemporary culture and consumerism. The UK citizens focus on accumulating wealth and value less religious and other cultural norms. Therefore, a father or mother does not hesitate to leave the family if it can lead to better economic prospects. Individuals justify their decisions by accruing wealth and other material things (Dunst, 2022). It is the opposite case for Saudi Arabia. It means families live under the dictations of religious and cultural norms. The Islamic culture and norms prevent families from disintegrating without valid reasons (Alrubaishi et al., 2021).

Therefore, the UK should emulate Saudi Arabia regarding culture and social values holding families together. Likewise, Saudi Arabia should learn from the UK the essentiality of allowing individuals and families to make their choices.

The Saudi Arabia government, religious, and cultural entities should give individuals and families freedom because of differences in people. For instance, it is permissible in the UK for persons to start a family if they want it or not (Dunst, 2022). At the same time, UK citizens have the freedom to divorce if they have valid reasons behind it. Saudi Arabia discourages divorce because of cultural and religious norms. However, the legal and religious entities should offer citizens and families the liberty to leave social institutions with the potential of undermining their potential. Saudi Arabia should have similar liberties because not all families have an opportunity to thrive. Saudi Arabia is becoming like the UK in consumerist attitudes (Zhang & Li, 2019). Therefore, individuals and families should have the freedom to choose a family or otherwise. People should decide because resources play a crucial role in family cohesion.

In conclusion, family is a product of blood or adoption ties. A typical family consists of a father and a mother. The father is the head of the family, assisted by the mother to maintain a home. However, the family setup is changing because of increased singleparenthood. The UK and Saudi Arabia share family similarities. Members are from the nuclear or extended family. Also, the two countries have underprivileged and privileged families. The underlying connection among prosperous families is blood and economic ties. The underprivileged families struggle with unity resulting from economic capacity. However, the UK has more single parents than Saudi Arabia because of its free and consumerist culture.

Saudi Arabia’s culture and norms encourage nuclear and extended families. Hence, Saudi

Arabia has the least number of single-parent households.


Alrubaishi, D., McAdam, M., & Harrison, R. (2021). Culture, Islamic capital and the entrepreneurial behaviour of family firms in Saudi Arabia. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, 27(6), 1476-1501. doi:10.1108/ijebr-09-2020-

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Dunst, C. J. (2022, January 5). Online. Meta-analysis of the relationships between the adequacy of family resources and parenting beliefs and practices. Retrieved from [Accessed 6 March.


Nasser, Z. A. (2019, August 7). The effect of royal family members on the board on firm performance in Saudi Arabia. Retrieved from

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Zhang, M., & Li, Y. (2019). Family fortunes: The persisting grandparents’ effects in contemporary British society. Social Science Research, 77, 179-192. doi:10.1016/j.ssresearch.2018.08.010 [Accessed 6 March. 2022].