Cyclone Shaheen 9 CYCLONE SHAHEEN Author Affiliation Course Instructor Due Date CYCLONE

Cyclone Shaheen 9

CYCLONE SHAHEEN

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CYCLONE SHAHEEN

Cyclones are an unfortunate occurrence considering they lead to devastating impacts. The higher the intensity, the worse the impact. Cyclone Shaheen (a high-intensity cyclone), whose inception arose from specific weather conditions favoring the inception of cyclones and climate change, had devastating impacts on the environment, such as flooding and erosion, which can be solved by reducing the flood and evacuation for affected families.

Notably, on October 3rd, it was featured that Cyclone Shaheen formed a landfall within Oman, near the Muscat. This was after it traveled through the Gulf of Oman through to the Arabian Sea. The India Meteorological Department is featured with monitoring and also tracking the formation of cyclones within the North Indian Ocean. Reported that the Cyclones Shahen categorized Cyclone Shaheen to be a server cyclonic storm (Murakami et al., 2020). This was after its occurrence leading to a landfill that sustained wind of 70 miles per hour. The arrival of this natural event featured heavy rainfall and excessive flooding in the different valleys featured, to be honest, part of the topography of Oman.

The high winds of Cyclone Shaheen are featured with high winds of cyclones that are featured with the generation of massive storm surges that occur along the coast and cause severe damage to various homes and the infrastructure within where they are said to occur. With the occurrence of these winds within Oman, it was recorded that 14 people died from the impact, and the number is likely to increase when it occurs again. In addition to the same, it is notable that different surrounding countries have also felt the impact of cyclones. The country’s surrounding Omanare featured with implications such as enhanced winds and rainfalls that can be noted within the United Arab Emirates and Iran. The individuals within these areas are featured suffering from structural damages, fatalities, and also injuries.

It is featured to be very uncommon for tropical cyclones to be noted within the north Indian Ocean. The combination of the warm sea surface and temperatures in proximity to the equator and high relative humidity generates a tropical cyclone to the west of India. It featured that almost held of the different tropical cyclones featured to be developed within the Arabian Sea do not make any form of landfall. Most of that does within the Arabian Peninsula is said to become severely weakened. Some of the cyclones are featured with traveling further to the west towards the Horn of Africa (Hoque et al., 2018). They are featured with losing their intensity in that trajectory as a result of relatively coolers waters that are noted to be in the western Arabian Sea.

Yemen and Oman are featured as the countries most impacted in the peninsula from the different activities regarding cyclones due to the length of the combined coastline set out on the Arabian Sea. It is featured that very few cyclonic storms can make landfall within Oman and Yemen at a significantly higher level of the cyclone’s intensity; they are noted to be possessed anytime they are said to form across the Arabian sea (Murakami et al., 2020). These storms, when they occur in these countries, are featured with bringing about flooding, causing death, and also the destruction of property within the country that they occur.

Compared to the tropical cyclones that are featured to originate from the North Indian Ocean, the working and the behavior of Cyclone Shaheen are featured to be unprecedented in the modern, and they are likely to show a potential shift in how climate change is said to be influencing the formation of various extreme weather event. The weather events are likely to have an impact on the climate of the Middle East. There are two essential aspects of Cyclone Shaheen that are supposed to be considered if it is noted that the cyclones are likely to occur in the future.

The first aspect that is supposed to be considered is the persistence of cyclones over land. It is featured that the Cyclone Shaheen was formed in the Arabian Sea as a result of the previous storms that were noted in the Gulab. The Cyclone Gulab was said to have originated from the Bay of Bengal before it is said to have traveled across the West of India, progressively reducing in the intensity to a depression. It was featured that instead of dissipating after the loss of power was noted, and it is featured that the remnant of Cyclone Gulab focused on reenergizing itself in the Arabian Sea and traveled into the Gulf of Oman (Mahmoud, 2021). As it started to enter the Gulf of Oman, it is featured that the Cyclone Shaheen was seen to become a very tragic cyclonic storm, that made it to be more robust cyclone that had a faster wind speed as compared to the original cyclone (Gulab)from where it was featured to have sprung.

The other aspect noted was the movement of the cyclone that is featured to occur beyond the Arabian Sea. It is featured that very few of the tropical cyclones that come from the Arabian Sea do travel to the Gulf of Oman. And it is featured that only a few make the landfall in the Arabian Peninsula very serious of the cyclonic storm after they move across the Gulf of Oman.

A severe cyclonic storm was featured to have hit the Andhra Coast around May 1990. The speed of the wind was featured to be around 250km/h, and the waves of the storm are said to have surged to a height of about 5-6m. The storm was featured with heavy rainfall and also gales. With the occurrence of this cyclone, it featured extensive damage that occurred over the coasts of river Krishna in the Guntur district. In addition to the same, it was featured that the rainfall affected the neighboring communities, and floods flowed within these areas. It was featured that about 6000 villages were affected by these actions. Causalities within this area were noted over 900 humans, and also 24,000 animals, cattle were affected.

A cyclone is featured as a swirling atmospheric disruption that occurs in regions that are featured to have low pressure. It is said to take place in hot oceans, and it tends to be accompanied by winds that are featured to be very powerful. The center of the cyclone is referred to as the eye of the cyclone. The clouds are featured to come together at the center. Worst conditions that have a devastating wind are noted to prevail within the wall of the eye in the radius of the winds that are between 20 -30 km (Mahmoud, 2021). As the look of the clones is said to cross over a given area, the winds are said to drop. The sped of the wind tends to increase again, and they calm in-between spaces that are not at the end of the cyclone.

Causes of the Problem

A combination of weather factors such as sustained winds accompanied by other environmental settings that serve as incentives for cyclones facilitated the occurrence of Cyclone Shaheen. The cyclone made landfall in Oman, in a region near Muscat, following traveling the distance from the Arabian Sea through the Gulf of Oman. The India Meteorological Department, whose mandate involves monitoring and tracking cyclones formation within the North Indian Ocean, categorized Cyclone Shaheen as a severe cyclonic storm with sustained winds of 70 miles per hour when the cyclone made landfall (Mahmoud, 2021). The cyclone’s arrival instigated heavy rainfall while the high winds generated massive storm surges within the coastlines. Cyclone Shaheen’s severity reached surrounding countries like the United Arab Emirates and Iran who faced enhanced rainfall and winds (Mahmoud, 2021). Tropical cyclones commonly occur in the north Indian Ocean within the southeastern Arabian Sea. Some factors that lead to their occurrence include a combination of warm sea surface temperatures that are in proximity to the equator and high relative humidity. The proximity to the equator ensures the highest level of solar radiation absorbed by the earth. On the other hand, the humidity ensures atmospheric moisture. The combination creates the perfect environment for generating tropical cyclones west of India. The Bay of Bengal equally has similar environments that are cyclone-conducive towards the east of India. Despite the suitable conditions, the tropical cyclones generated within the Arabian Sea hardly make landfall. The cyclones within the Arabian Peninsula reduce in intensity (they get downgraded to a depression) (Mahmoud, 2021). Other cyclones take a different route to the Arabian countries coastline by traveling west toward the Horn of Africa. Despite the route taken, they equally lose intensity as they move towards the Horn of Africa due to the relatively calmer waters towards the west of the Arabian Sea. Oman and Yemen’s history sees them bear the weight of cyclone activity subject to their lengthy and combined coastline on the Arabian Sea.

Climate change probably influenced the occurrence of Cyclone Shaheen, considering the unprecedented occurrence in contemporary times. Some cyclones occurred in the past within the region that serves as a measuring bar. The behavior of Cyclone Shaheen does not match the mentioned cyclones. Cyclone Shaheen was unprecedented in the modern era, which provides a case for a potential shift in how climate change influences extreme weather events that can impact the Middle East region (Mahmoud, 2021). Cyclone Shaheen shows the difference compared to other cyclones through two essential traits. Firstly, its persistence over land. After forming in the Arabian Sea from the remnants of the past cyclone, Gulab, instead of entirely dissipating following the loss of much intensity, Cyclone Gulab remnants reenergized in the Arabian Sea (Mahmoud, 2021). The remnants then moved west, taking the trajectory of heading to the Gulf of Oman. When entering the latter destination, Cyclone Shaheen became severe, establishing itself as a severe cyclonic system with faster wind speeds than its predecessor. Such a situation has only occurred twice in modern history (Mahmoud, 2021). Neither of the two cases made a similar severe landfall involving the high severity of cyclonic storm as witnessed by Cyclone Shaheen. Secondly, Cyclone Shaheen moved beyond the Arabian Sea (Mahmoud, 2021). It is uncommon for tropical cyclones originating from the Arabian Sea to travel into the Gulf of Oman; furthermore, it is hard for the cyclones to make landfall in the Arabian Peninsula with high intensity after traversing the mentioned distance. There are only two records of such cyclones with high intensity making the distance, the first occurred in the 19th century, and Cyclone Shaheen is the second (approximately more than a century years later) (Mahmoud, 2021). Therefore, the identified two reasons that make Cyclone Shaheen notable are a determining factor of the influence of climate change in contributing to its inception.

Effects of the Phenomenon on the Environment

Cyclones are devastating weather events that cause damage to the environment. According to Hoque et al. (2018), a cyclone is a spinning storm that arises from low-pressure areas in the atmosphere. In the Northern Hemisphere, cyclones turn counterclockwise. On the other hand, they turn clockwise in the Southern Hemisphere. Tropical cyclones develop over tropical or subtropical waters before making landfall. The significant weather systems have altering names subject to their intensity; however, the common name provided for such cyclones are typhoons or hurricanes. The wind speeds influence the classification of cyclones, with speeds ranging from approximately 74 to 156 miles per hour (Murakami et al., 2020). Tropical cyclones frequently lead to environmental changes that go beyond the landfall area. For example, winds will cause damage subject to their intensity, and Category 1 cyclones would cause minor damage by hurting trees and shrubbery. On the other hand, Category 5 winds with more intensity may rip trees from the ground and cause other devastating damages like flattening buildings that pollute the environment. The cyclones that fall between Category 1 to 5 have varying degrees of destruction, with winds tearing branches from trees or destroying existing vegetation. The net result involves the destruction of animal habitats and other organisms whose natural habitats are destroyed in the process. Such situations alter the ecosystem. Furthermore, flying debris can kill human beings or animals by hurting their breathing. Secondly, cyclones can lead to flooding through surges in ocean waters with the net impact of rising sea levels above normal (also called tidal waves). They can kill directly impacted individuals and animals. Cyclones can equally facilitate torrential rains that contribute to flooding. Thirdly, flooding may cause erosion, especially if the intensity of the winds is very high, leading to damaged ecosystems and vegetation. Wind erosion exposes the area to more wind erosion, and the moving debris can damage vegetation in the moving area. Lastly, cyclones can cause storm churn, especially if the winds churn up cold water while moving across the large water body. Churning lowers water temperatures after the passing of the storm leading to the formation of new storms. Therefore, cyclones lead to devastating impacts on the environment.

Cyclone Shaheen had devastating effects on the environment due to its intensity, with some notable once observable to the naked eye while others manifest later. When Cyclone Sheheen made landfall, there was excessive flooding brought about by the heavy rainfall. Oman’s topography worsened the situation, considering the region has many valleys as a natural part of its topography. The flooding due to Oman’s topography exhibits water pollution with the vegetation in the affected regions bearing the burden of the flooding. Such situations equally hurt organisms living within the affected regions. The flooding may facilitate the death of organisms or subject the animals within the regions to changing their living habitat. The latter is an effect that will manifest at a later stage. Secondly, Cyclone Shaheen had high-intensity winds (sustained winds of 70 miles per hour). The winds facilitated storm surges along the coast of Oman. The winds equally caused damage to infrastructure and homes. Meaning Cyclone Shaheen caused wind pollution by uprooting homes and moving the debris to other regions due to the high intensity of the winds. The destruction led to the displacement of many individuals. It equally hurt the organisms existing where the debris landed. The affected region may be currently prone to further erosion by wind. The affected area from the wind erosion equally has damaged ecosystems and structures subject to the movement of the debris. Therefore, Cyclone Shaheen facilitated devastating impacts on the environment due to its high intensity.

The phenomenon of effects on people

Different effects are said to result from the occurrence of cyclone Shaheen when it occurs or occurs in a given area. The main impact of hurricanes includes strong winds, tornadoes, heavy rains and large storm surges in the regions that they are said to occur. The intensity, size and also location of the cyclone is featured to cause further destructions. Cyclones tend to be featured with removing forest canopy and changing the landscape of a given area near the coastal areas where these activities are said to occur (Murakami et al., 2020). The cyclones affect a given landscape by removing and reshaping the dunes in a room and causing other significant extensive erosion on the coastal areas.

In addition to the same, the heavy rainfalls also affect the customary land where people stay. Heavy rains are likely to be featured with causing landslides in various areas that they hit, such as mountainous areas. The effect of these activities is expected to stay for a long time, causing the areas to be prone to different activities. In addition to the same, after a cyclone has been noted in an area, it is featured that devastation continues being recorded in various regions. Fallen trees pointed out in an area tend to cause blocking of roads and delay the rescues that are supposed to be needed in multiple locations (Hoque et al., 2018). Also, it causes issues related to health as medical supplies, and the required personnel are likely to be delayed to arrive in an affected area.

Strong winds tend to be a major cause of various issues when it comes to Cyclone Shaheen. They tend to cause destruction or damage of vehicles, trees, and buildings in an area where it is affected. The various losses noted in areas tend to be severe due to the substantial winds. In addition to the same, they are featured with causing issues relating to communication, causing communication to be a problem in an area. Cyclones Shaheen is featured with causing an increase in the sea level. This is featured to be the worst effect of cyclones. It is featured that the relatively quick storm surges can move inland, causing various floods in homes and cutting off different escape routes (Murakami et al., 2020). These storm surges are very destructive to various human-made structures such as buildings and can also stir the water of diverse coastal estuaries.

Heavy rainfall is also featured as one of the effects caused by cyclone Shaheen in both the areas that it has occurred and other neighboring countries. It is featured that the thunderstorm activity in the cyclone is featured with producing intense rainfall. The impact of rainfalls is regarded to advance as they are likely to include mudslides, flooding, and landslides. In addition to the same, it is noted that the heavy inland rainfalls also significantly affect various marine life in diverse coastal estuaries. Damaging of marine life is a significant impact that causes issues related to food and also extinction (Hoque et al., 2018). The wet environment that is noted after the occurrence of the cyclones is featured because of different epidemic diseases and hence claiming many lives after the storm. The area is featured to be sewage-polluted with various water areas that damage the environment. For instance, the different large areas of standing waters left behind to tend to be featured, leading to mosquito-borne illnesses such as Malaria. Although cyclones are featured with causing tolls in personal property and also lives of people, they are featured with driving a precipitation regime in various places that they are said to occur. They bring the required precipitation in different areas that are featured to be dry regions.

Tornadoes tend to be another effect that Cyclone Shaheen in Oman causes. The rotation of various land-falling cyclones is said to spawn tornadoes. This is mainly to take place in the right front quadrant in the Cyclones. Tornadoes are featured with leading to heavy damage and losses to human life anytime they are said to occur (Murakami et al., 2020). Death is another factor that is said to affect cyclones when they take place in an area. Cyclones cause heavy death in an area where they occur.

Solutions to the Problem

There are personal preparedness and safety procedures when faced with the adversity of a cyclone before the cyclone season, when there is the issuing of a cyclone watch, when the cyclone strikes, and in the aftermath of the adversity. Firstly, before the cyclone season, it is essential to check with the building control authority to determine if the home has a firm foundation according to cyclone standards. It is essential to check the walls and other building parts, such as the roof, to determine if the home is secure. Other measures an individual can carry out include trimming surrounding vegetation to limit their adverse impact. Secondly, when a cyclone watch warning is provided, individuals need to recheck their property to tie loose ends. People should check their emergency kit and preparedness for the worst-case scenario. The knowledge concerning the firmest part within a home should be relayed to every individual within a household if there is a need to seek cover. People should listen keenly to information providers such as local radio stations and television programs for further warnings or information. Thirdly, when there is a warning of the cyclone occurring, the population must heed local authorities’ instructions. When the cyclone strikes, security is the essential aspect. Therefore, people should disconnect electrical appliances and use batter radio to acquire information. People should seek shelter in the firmest parts of the building, and when the building starts breaking up, it is crucial to protect oneself with mattresses or rugs under solid surfaces like a table or a bench. Lastly, after the cyclone, people should only go out when officially advised it is safe, check for gas leaks, listen to the radio for updates, evacuate early if necessary as recommended by local authorities. People should equally heed other warnings and ensure they are safe.

Considering the provided options for individuals and assuming people heeded to the

mentioned elements before Cyclone Shaheen made landfall and during the devastating events, there are specific solutions to the adverse impacts considering the flooding and erosion. Firstly, there is a need to address the flooding along valleys due to the topography of Oman. One ideal way to address the collected water is by building trenches that facilitate their movement from the affected regions to nearby water bodies. Furthermore, the water may be used for irrigation with some vegetation requiring much water to thrive, such as rice. Secondly, for the erosion facilitated by the high-intensity wind, there is a need to collect the damages from the moving debris accompanied by building materials that the wind uprooted. The debris and materials, if left unchecked, may cause further adversity in the affected regions. The local authorities should equally provide evacuation plans for the affected individuals considering the loss of their homes. The latter should be the most significant consideration given the basic need of having a home that will settle the troubled minds of individuals who lost their homes to Cyclone Shaheen. Therefore, there is a need to address the flooding and the loss of homes through the mentioned solutions to the problems.

Cyclone Shaheen occurred due to favoring conditions within the ocean that favored occurrence of a cyclone and climate change considering the special traits of the cyclone such as its intensity and distance covered. The devastating impacts on the environment such as flooding and loss of homes require addressing by using the water for farming or building trenches to eradicate the collection and evacuating the affected individuals who lost their homes. Cyclones are sad occurrences; however, sufficient preparedness and response to such sitautions is important.

Bibliography

Hoque, M.A.A., Phinn, S., Roelfsema, C. and Childs, I., 2018. Modelling tropical cyclone risks for present and future climate change scenarios using geospatial techniques. International Journal of Digital Earth, 11(3), pp.246-263.

Mahmoud, M., 2021. “Cyclone Shaheen: A reminder of the Arabian Peninsula’s vulnerability to extreme weather events.” MEl@75, https://www.mei.edu/publications/cyclone-shaheen-reminder-arabian-peninsulas-vulnerability-extreme-weather-events

Murakami, H., Delworth, T.L., Cooke, W.F., Zhao, M., Xiang, B. and Hsu, P.C., 2020. Detected climatic change in global distribution of tropical cyclones. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 117(20), pp.10706-10714.