– EAB3002 – Introduction to the Experimental Analysis of Behavior: Proctored Midterm Exam

Question 1

0 / 3 pts
Applied behavior analysis is:

discovering behavior management techniques

defining behavior in an organism

manipulating conditions to produce changes in behavior

the use of behavior principles to solve practical problems

Question 2

3 / 3 pts
Skinner argued that internal events such as feelings, thoughts, and intentions:

are unimportant

should be ignored

are behaviors that need to be explained

are often causes of our behavior

Question 3

3 / 3 pts
The principle of discrimination:

states that an organism will respond differently in two situations

states that an organism will respond the same in the same situation

states that an organism will respond differently in the same situation

states that an organism will respond differently when with different organisms

Question 4

3 / 3 pts
The context of behavior can be defined as:

both the physiological and environmental conditions that surround a behavior

the physiological conditions that surround a behavior

the environmental conditions that surround a behavior

the environmental conditions independent of the physiological conditions, that surround a behavior

Question 5

3 / 3 pts
The behavior of an organism:

focuses only on overt actions that can be measured by an outsider

is everything an organism does, including thinking and feeling

is everything an organism does, including biological processes such as digestion

includes the behaviors of organisms around the target organism

Question 6

3 / 3 pts
Which of the following is not an example of respondent conditioning?

A baby smiling at its parent after having been picked up for smiling in the past

Feeling anxious any time you hear the music from a scary movie

Flinching slightly when the nurse tells you that they are about to give you a shot

Feeling excited whenever you smell your significant otherâ s cologne/perfume
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Question 7

3 / 3 pts
According to Baer, Wolf, and Risley (1968), what is the difference between basic and applied behavior analysis?

Basic research is likely to look at any behavior and any variable AND applied research looks at variables that could improve behavior

Basic research is likely to look at any behavior and any variable

Applied research looks at variables that could improve behavior

None of these

Question 8

3 / 3 pts
Behavior analysis seeks to:

explain behavior and develop behavior management techniques for humans

define the principles and rules of behavior

work with already defined principles and rules of behavior, apply them across species, and develop behavior management techniques

define the principle and rules of behavior, apply them across species, and develop behavior management techniques

Question 9

3 / 3 pts
A researcher examined the possibility that additional recess time would increase the number of math facts learned over a 1-month period. The procedure tested this hypothesis using a first-grade classroom with extended recess time and a second-grade classroom with regular recess time. In this study, the number of math facts learned over 1 month would be considered the:

the independent variable

the dependent variable

a confound

the research hypothesis

Question 10

3 / 3 pts
Conditioned emotional responses that include an increase in heart rate, perspiration, or a change in blood pressure are examples of ______.

instincts

respondents

learning

operants

IncorrectQuestion 11

0 / 3 pts
A researcher examined the possibility that additional recess time would increase the number of math facts learned over a 1-month period. The procedure tested this hypothesis using a first-grade classroom with extended recess time and a second-grade classroom with regular recess time. In this study, the ages of the students in the study would be considered a:

the independent variable

the dependent variable

a confound

the research hypothesis

Question 12

3 / 3 pts
In terms of the Stroop effect, behavior analysts point to _____ and _____ as reasons for hesitation.

response competition; learning

learning; reinforcement

history of reinforcement; memory

response competition; history of reinforcement

Question 13

3 / 3 pts
Max heard about a study in class where researchers reduced the number of pieces of candy taken by trick-or-treaters by placing a mirror behind the bowl of candy. In order to demonstrate the generality of this finding, Max is now running a study where he is testing the effect of a mirror placed behind a trash can on the number of recyclable items placed in the trash receptacle. Max’s study is an example of:

direct replication

systematic replication

a reversal design

statistical groups design

Question 14

3 / 3 pts
A unique benefit of steady baselines for behavioral neuroscientists interested in the effects of drugs on behavior is that:

they demonstrate experimental control

they allow researchers to feel more confident about findings

they help to demonstrate a causal relation between variables

they allow for the detection of effects of small doses of a drug

Question 15

3 / 3 pts
The way an individual chooses to turn on a light switch is an example of _______ of response. This is determined by the function and consequences.

cognition

instinct

topography

reflex

Question 16

3 / 3 pts
Negative reinforcers:

increase behavior when present

decrease behavior when present

decrease behavior when removed

increase behavior when removed

Question 17

3 / 3 pts
While all members of a species share the same _________________ history, each member has a unique _______________ history

phylogenetic; ontogenetic

ontogenetic; individual

individual; phylogenetic

ontogenetic; phylogenetic

Question 18

3 / 3 pts
Reflexive behavior is said to be _____ and _____.

voluntary; inflexible

respondent; emitted

built-in; flexible

involuntary; elicited

Question 19

3 / 3 pts
Fixed action patterns are:

sequences of behavior that are phylogenetic in origin

sequences of behavior that are learned through trial and error

patterns of reinforcement that are elicited by reflexes

patterns of reinforcement that are learned

IncorrectQuestion 20

0 / 3 pts
Respondent conditioning occurs through the pairing of:

an unconditioned stimulus with an unconditioned response

an unconditioned stimulus with a neutral stimulus

a conditioned stimulus with a conditioned response

a neutral stimulus with a conditioned stimulus

Question 21

3 / 3 pts
The major difference between reaction chains and fixed action patterns is:

each set of responses in a fixed action pattern requires an appropriate stimulus to set it off

any stimulus may set off a reaction chain

each set of responses in a reaction chain requires an appropriate stimulus to set it off

any stimulus may set off a fixed action pattern

Question 22

3 / 3 pts
Saying there is “high contiguity between the neutral stimulus and the unconditioned stimulus” suggests that:

if the neutral stimulus is presented, the unconditioned stimulus will follow

the unconditioned stimulus is presented very close in time to the neutral stimulus

the association between the neutral stimulus and the unconditioned stimulus will be slow to form

the occurrence of the unconditioned stimulus is dependent on the presentation of the neutral stimulus

Question 23

3 / 3 pts
After several dates with Julie, Max finds that his heart rate increases slightly whenever she walks into the room. When visiting Julie’s house, Max experiences a similar increased heart rate when Julie’s twin sister walks into the room. This is an example of:

respondent discrimination

spontaneous recovery

respondent generalization

contiguity

Question 24

3 / 3 pts
Which of the following is not a major characteristic of habituation?

The decrease in strength of habituated response is large at first then becomes more gradual

The habituated response will return after a period without the unconditioned stimulus being presented

Repeat habituation results in faster habituation on each subsequent exposure

Habituation is one of the most rudimentary forms of operant learning and memory

Question 25

3 / 3 pts
The extinction burst refers to:

an increase in frequency of the behavior when extinction is first started

an increase in the variability of behavior when extinction is first started

increased emotional responding that occurs during extinction

the tendency for previously reinforced behavior to reappear during extinction

Question 26

3 / 3 pts
Skinner proposed that the basic datum (measure) for operant analysis should be:

magnitude

latency

frequency

rate

Question 27

3 / 3 pts
One of the main criticisms of behavioral rewards and reinforcement is the idea that ______.

external rewards will lead to lower intrinsic motivation

external rewards will lead to higher intrinsic motivation

intrinsic motivation will not be effected by external motivation

internal rewards will lead to lower intrinsic motivation

IncorrectQuestion 28

0 / 3 pts
What defines a contingency of reinforcement?

Discriminative stimulus

Operant

Reinforcement

All of these

Question 29

3 / 3 pts
Response deprivation has what effect on the response hierarchy in a free-choice setting?

Deprivation removes the free-choice element of decision-making

Deprivation can lead to the performance of all behaviors to increase in frequency creating excessive responding

Deprivation can lead to a behavior moving up on the response hierarchy, functioning as greater reinforcement at a given moment

Deprivation does not affect the response hierarchy

Question 30

3 / 3 pts
Consider the following example: “Joanne is very fair skinned. In order to not get sunburned, she puts on sunscreen before she goes to the beach.” This is an example of ______.

positive reinforcement

negative reinforcement

positive punishment

negative punishment

Question 31

3 / 3 pts
Kobayashi and colleagues demonstrated that the presentation of juice in the mouth following a spike in neural activity could be used as a reinforcer for activity in the _____ of Japanese monkeys.

lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC)

visual cortex

somatosensory cortex

amygdala

Question 32

3 / 3 pts
To experimentally study the probability of response, a researcher uses ____ as the basic measure and follows the ____ method.

operant rate; T-maze

latency; T-maze

operant rate; free operant

latency; free operant

Question 33

3 / 3 pts
_______ is the increase in topographic variability during extinction after a period of reinforcement.

Resurgence

Resistance

Reinforcement

Baseline return

Question 34

3 / 3 pts
The shape of the response pattern generated by an FI is called a ______.

break and pause

ogive

accelerating dynamic

scallop

Question 35

3 / 3 pts
Online farming games often require the player to return after a certain amount of time to collect their crop. If the player fails to check their crop within a specified amount of time after it is ready for harvest will die and no longer “pay” when harvested. This is an example of:

a limited hold

a postreinforcement pause

break-and-run responding

behavioral momentum

Question 36

3 / 3 pts
If food is presented every time a pigeon pecks a key then there is a ______ schedule of reinforcement.

concurrent

continuous

ratio

interval

Question 37

3 / 3 pts
Roll, Higgins, and Badger (1996) tested the effectiveness of schedules of reinforcement for reducing cigarette smoking. The results of their study indicated that:

progressive schedules produced the highest level of abstinence and reduction in smoking

providing a constant payout produced the highest level of abstinence and reduction in smoking

both the progressive and constant schedules were equally as effective and both were better than the control condition

neither schedule showed improvements over the control condition

Question 38

3 / 3 pts
Consider the following example: “Maria is paid on Friday, every two weeks.” This is an example of a ______ schedule of reinforcement.

variable interval

fixed ratio

fixed interval

variable ratio

Question 39

3 / 3 pts
A schedule that is made up of a series of alternately presented fixed-ratio (FR) schedules with the following values, FR 5, FR 10, FR 20, FR 25, and FR 40, would be best described as:

a variable ratio 20 schedule

a fixed ratio 20 schedule

a variable ratio 100 schedule

a fixed ratio 100 schedule

Question 40

3 / 3 pts
Following a schedule of reinforcement and an acquisition period behavior typically settles into a _____, which becomes very predictable.

stable state

performance decline

homeostatic performance

performance increase

Question 41

3 / 3 pts
Giving an organism another way to obtain reinforcement will:

make punishment more effective

make punishment less effective

have no effect on punishment

will not be compatible with a schedule of punishment

Question 42

3 / 3 pts
Skinner (1953) reported a game played by sailors in the 18th century. The game involved:

each boy being told to hit another boy when he was hit

a slight tap on one boy

tying several boys in a ring

all of these

Question 43

3 / 3 pts
Punishers that have to be used repeatedly indicate:

that they should be gradually intensified and their use continued

that they are ineffective and should be discontinued

that they are doing their job and should be continued

that while they are effective they should be discontinued

Question 44

3 / 3 pts
When an aversive consequence is delivered to an individual, one possible side effect is that they retaliate in an aggressive manor toward the individual. This type of retaliatory behavior is known as:

reflexive aggression

operant aggression

learned helplessness

social disruption

Question 45

3 / 3 pts
A real-life example of ______ can be seen in individuals suffering from obsessive-compulsive disorder who compulsively wash their hands because they fear exposure to germs.

discriminated reinforcement

nondiscriminated avoidance

nondiscriminated reinforcement

discriminated avoidance

Question 46

3 / 3 pts
Regarding the side effects of punishment, Solomon’s (1969) solution is to:

provide informed help to those who are controlled by punishment

cease investigations of punishment, especially in applied settings

search for the rules or principles governing such side effects

investigate the role of negative reinforcement rather than punishment

IncorrectQuestion 47

0 / 3 pts
If an organism emits an alternate behavior, that behavior can be seen as a(n) ____ if it occurs during punishment, and a(n) ____ if it prevents punishment.

respondent behavior; operant behavior

avoidance behavior; escape behavior

operant behavior; respondent behavior

escape behavior; avoidance behavior

Question 48

3 / 3 pts
Azrin, Holtz, and Hake (1963) found that when pigeons were shocked with a punisher that increased intensity gradually ______, and when they were shocked with a punisher of moderate intensity ______.

the birds increased their speed of response; the birds decreased their speed of response

the birds decreased their speed of response; the birds increased their speed of response

the birds would continue to respond; the birds quit responding

the birds quit responding; the birds would continue to respond

Question 49

3 / 3 pts
The procedure of nondiscriminative avoidance is also called _______.

Sidman avoidance

signaled avoidance

sensory aversion

Stevens aversion

Question 50

3 / 3 pts
Contingencies of punishment:

teach novel behavior

encourage productive behavior

are more effective than contingencies of reinforcement

do not teach or condition new behavior

IncorrectQuestion 51

0 / 3 pts
Research conducted by Garcia and Koelling (1966) on taste aversion in rats using shocks and x-ray induced gastrointestinal illness found that:

both shocks and gastrointestinal illness produced the same degree of taste aversion

x-ray induced intestinal illness produced taste aversion while shocks did not

taste aversion conditioning was most effective when they were used simultaneously

shocks produced taste aversion while gastrointestinal illness did not

Question 52

3 / 3 pts
Phenomena like instinctive drift, sign tracking, and autoshaping have been analyzed as:

behavior systems activated by the US and the physical properties of the CS

both stimulus substitution where the CS substitutes for the US AND behavior systems activated by the US and the physical properties of the CS

stimulus substitution where the CS substitutes for the US

none of these

IncorrectQuestion 53

0 / 3 pts
What did Lett and Grant (1996) suggest in terms of activity anorexia?

Both activity anorexia probably explains taste aversion conditioning AND activity anorexia is the first stage in taste aversion conditioning

Activity anorexia is the first stage in taste aversion conditioning

Activity anorexia could involve taste aversion induced by physical activity

Activity anorexia probably explains taste aversion conditioning

Question 54

3 / 3 pts
In terms of operant conditioning of reflexive behavior, the experiment by Miller and Carmona (1967) showed:

that the increased flow of saliva was accompanied by the dogs being more alert

that salivation and heart rate were both susceptible to operant conditioning

conclusive results for operant conditioning of salivation

all of these

Question 55

3 / 3 pts
Pierce, Epling, and colleagues found that the reinforcing value of food:

increased as wheel running increased

decreased as wheel running increased

was largely unaffected by wheel running

was affected by wheel running only when the food preceded wheel running

Question 56

3 / 3 pts
Excessive drinking is technically called ____.

polydipsia

polyfluidity

polydistation

polyhydration

Question 57

3 / 3 pts
In taste aversion studies:

novel tastes are less easily conditioned than familiar ones

familiarity has no effect on taste aversion conditioning

novel tastes are more easily conditioned than familiar ones

novel tastes cannot be conditioned until they become familiar

Question 58

3 / 3 pts
What is the relationship between adjunctive behavior and the level of deprivation?

The higher the level of deprivation the greater the adjunctive behavior

Adjunctive behavior is related to each organism’s predisposition to response as opposed to their level of deprivation

The lower the level of deprivation the greater the adjunctive behavior

Adjunctive behavior is only exhibited during times of high deprivation

IncorrectQuestion 59

0 / 3 pts
If a researcher is attempting to teach a pig to move discs to a designated location but is unable to because of the pig’s rooting reflex (to push the disc into the dirt), ______ has occurred.

reflexology

instinctive drift

primal contingency patterns

operant learning

IncorrectQuestion 60

0 / 3 pts
Miller and Carmona’s (1967) experiment on the increase and decrease of salivation in dogs:

was confounded by the tone chosen to accompany the dogs in the increased salivation group

was confounded by the level of hunger eliciting respondent behavior that was not initially accounted for

found that salivation was not increased or decreased based on reinforcement

was confounded by whether or not a reinforced behavioral pattern produced greater or less salivation
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