Exam 1 PSY3211 – Research Methods and Data Analysis in Psychology

PSY3211 – Research Methods and Data Analysis in Psychology


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Question 1

1 / 1 pts
“Hunger is defined as 24 hours of food deprivation.” This is an example of a(n) _______ definition.





Question 2

1 / 1 pts
Does randomization guarantee that groups are equivalent at the start of a study?

Yes, because participants in all conditions share similar characteristics (women in both conditions, elderly in both, etc.)

Yes, because randomization ensures that all participants have been assigned to the condition best suited to their talent

No, it does not guarantee equivalency, though it does give us confidence that the two groups are mostly equivalent

No, randomization is not effective at making groups equivalent at all

Question 3

1 / 1 pts
Which of the following is NOT a component of an experiment?

control of extraneous variables

manipulation of the independent variable

measurement of the dependent variable

manipulation of the dependent variable

Question 4

1 / 1 pts
Susan conducts a study to determine which therapy method (behavioral, cognitive, or humanistic) is most effective in treating depression. Each participant receives two months of behavioral therapy, two months of cognitive therapy, and two months of humanistic therapy using a completely counterbalanced design. Susan finds that whatever type of therapy is last produces the most benefits. Susan has encountered a problem known as

experimenter bias.

order effects.

demand characteristics.

social desirability.

Question 5

1 / 1 pts
What type of statistics is used to organize and describe the characteristics of a collection of data?





Question 6

1 / 1 pts
One way to control the influence of extraneous variables is to

pretend they do not exist when analyzing your data.

tell your subjects to ignore any extraneous variables.

hold extraneous variables constant across levels of your independent variable.

all of these

Question 7

1 / 1 pts
A researcher calculates how many times a rat presses a food lever in its cage after having been either reinforced or punished for that push. What kind of dependent variable is this?

latency or duration


rate or frequency


Question 8

1 / 1 pts
“Individuals in the experimental group who receive therapy will be less depressed than people in the control group who do not receive therapy.” This hypothesis is an example of a

contradictory statement.

nondirectional research hypothesis.

directional research hypothesis.

non-falsifiable hypothesis.

IncorrectQuestion 9

0 / 1 pts
Jeremy would like to do a study in which each participant is exposed to three different treatment conditions (Treatments A, B, and C). In order to do complete counterbalancing, Jeremy will need exactly ________ participants to get through one fully counterbalanced order.





Question 10

1 / 1 pts
A ___________ error refers to finding an effect when there really is no effect while a __________ error refers to not finding an effect when there really is an effect

Type I; Type II

Type II; Type I

Type I; Type III

Type III; Type II

Question 11

1 / 1 pts
The statement “If children watch violent television, then they will be more violent than those who do not watch violent television” is written in

contradictory form.

general implication form.

analytic form.

iambic pentameter.

Question 12

1 / 1 pts
Darley and Latane (1968) conducted a series of experiments after hearing about the murder of Kitty Genovese. On the basis of results from these experiments, they came up with a principle known as the bystander effect. Reasoning from the specific example of Kitty Genovese’s murder to the general theory of the bystander effect is an example of

inductive logic.

deductive logic.

a contradictory statement.

an analytic statement.

Question 13

1 / 1 pts
___________ refer to average dependent variable scores being very low while ___________ refer to average dependent variable scores being very high

Ceiling effects; floor effects

Floor effects; ceiling effects

Validity effects; reliability effects

Reactive effects; stair-wise effects

Question 14

1 / 1 pts
The type of descriptive statistic that tells you the most popular/most frequent choice from a number of choices is the:





Question 15

1 / 1 pts
Daniel would like to study a new way of teaching research methods. There are two sections of research methods: one taught at 2 p.m. on Mondays and the other at 2 p.m. on Wednesdays. Daniel has Bob, the Monday teacher, use the new method and Jack, the Wednesday teacher, use the old method. At the end of the semester, Daniel finds that students who were taught the new method had higher grades than students taught the old way. What (if any) is the extraneous variable?

grades at the end of the semester

method of instruction (new versus old)

having different teachers (Bob and Jack) teach the two classes

There is no extraneous variable in this study.

Question 16

1 / 1 pts
Following a confirmational strategy to test a theory can be good, but it has limitations. Which of the following is one of those limitations?

Having confirmation of a theory can spur additional research on that theory

You can gather all the confirmational data in the world and the theory could still be wrong.

Confirmational approaches can help show that a theory is incorrect

All of the above are limitations

Question 17

1 / 1 pts
What is the larger group from which a sample is drawn?



Sample group


Question 18

1 / 1 pts
Janet conducts a study on social loafing (letting other group members do most of the work). Similar to a prior research study she read about, she alters whether the student participant is alone or in a group. However, she adds a new dimension: whether the students in the group know or do not know each other. She finds that students by themselves worked harder than students in groups. In addition, she found that social loafing is lessened if the students in the group know each other as opposed to if they are strangers. Janet’s study represents

a replication study.

a replication with extension study.

lack of control.

a synthetic study.

Question 19

1 / 1 pts
________ statements are always false.





Question 20

1 / 1 pts
A researcher manipulates the __________ variable(s), measures the effect on the _________ variable(s), and tries to control the ____________ variable(s).

extraneous; independent; dependent

independent; extraneous; dependent

dependent; independent; extraneous

independent; dependent; extraneous