Food science class questions

Please note that questions should be answered within an hour .
It covers the following study guide.
Carbohydrates
Know the categories of carbohydrates, why they’re important, and an example of eachMonosaccharidesGlucose
Fructose

DisaccharidesSucrose
Lactose

PolysaccharidesWhy can we digest starch and not fiber?

Lactose intolerance causes
Functions of carbohydrates in food, not nutrition
Water activity vs. moisture content
Lipids
Know the definition of lipid
Lipid classifications and the importance of each category Triacylglyverols
Phospholipids
Cholesterol
Essential vs. nonessential
Saturated vs. unsaturated

HDL vs LDL cholesterol, cholesterol vs. plant sterols and stanols in terms of health
Why are trans-fatty acids bad?
How do emulsifiers work?
What are concerns with fish consumption and what are the benefits?
Lipid oxidation causes, prevention, and consequences
Functions of lipids in foods, not nutrition
Proteins
What atom is unique to protein compared to lipids and carbs?
Monomer of proteins?
The function of a protein is dependent upon what?
What is denaturing and how can it be induced?How is it good? How is it bad?

What are enzymes?
Understand the concept of essential vs inessential amino acids, as well as complimentary proteins (don’t need to know specific amino acids)
Kwashiorkor vs. Marasmus
What is PKU? What amino acid can people with PKU not eat?
Functions of proteins in food, not nutrition
Water and Emulsions
Water is polar
Why does ice float?
Understand freezing point depression, what is the normal freezing point?
Boiling point and altitude, what is boiling point at sea level?
Understand ice crystal formation and how to control it
Understand damage ice crystals can cause in food
How would you decrease the water activity?
Stabilizer vs. emulsifier and example of each
Oil-in-water vs water-in-oil emulsion examples
Ice Cream Chemistry
Why are some ice creams called “frozen dairy dessert?” (No need to memorize the legal definition of ice cream, just know one exists.)
Main components of ice cream and how they function to contribute to ice creams characteristics Water
CarbohydratesLactose and sucrose

ProteinsCasein and whey

Lipids

What is overrun?
Why is liquid nitrogen ice cream smoother and creamier than conventionally frozen ice cream?
Browning Reactions
Understand the similarities and differences between Maillard browning, Caramelization, and enzymatic browningRequired starting materials, conditions for each
End results of reaction

How to inhibit enzymatic browning
Factors effecting the rate of the Maillard reaction
Acrylamide production and how to avoid it

Cookie Activity
Role of gluten in baking
What does gluten free mean?
Factors that affect gluten formation
Role of butter, eggs, sugar, and leavening agents in baking
Be able to describe how the control cookie different from one variable being changed.