Grand theories outline nursing knowledge focusing on the patient-to-nurse relationship. Grand theories are usually associated with ideologies that provide sustainable frameworks across social-cultural periods and contexts. In nursing, the grand theories perceive nursing based on a broad view that includes all areas in the nursing profession. These theories are based on comprehensive, complex, and abstract concepts that framework nursing ideas on health and people.
Grand nursing theory’s scopes are broad and are related to various nursing areas. Middle-range theories are descriptive, explanatory, and descriptive. Middle-range theory’s scopes are narrower and more specific than grand nursing theories, enabling the concept application to be more accessible. However, both theories are sets of interrelated concepts that are utilized to guide advanced practice in nursing.
The two articles offer a discussion on King’s theory and Newman’s theory. Imogene King introduced her mid-range theory in 1968, the theory of Goal attainment. This theory is established on the grand theory referred to as the Conceptual system. Caceras (2015) states that the nursing process, which involves assessing, diagnosing, planning, and implementing stages, is central to setting goals in nurse-to-patient interactions and attaining them. Fronczek et al. (2017) state that King’s theory is primarily about goal attainment. The theory focuses on the interactions, perceptions, transactions, and communication between patients and their assigned nurses. King’s theory provides the suggestion that the nursing practice is based; on goals attained via client-nurse interactions, the perceived goals and motives of the client and nurse, and the ability of nurses to set these goals, establish communication of information which assists the client to their set goals (Caceras, 2015).
Fronczek (2017) sets in the discussion on the contemporary shift towards using technology and telehealth to implement King’s theory. The change comes with various advantages, such as addressing the gaps in the nursing practice in knowledge, management of diseases, and elimination of barriers between nurse-client interaction in achieving their goals. Telehealth eradicates the challenge of patient engagement which is pivotal in interactions between nurses and their clients. The shift facilitates goal attainment since a professional patient-nurse relationship is dependent upon their interaction.