Running Head: IMPACT OF COVID-19 1


The Covid-19 pandemic resulting from SARS-CoV-21 has disrupted the global social, economic, and health welfare through an unparalleled proportion throughout modern history. Covid-19 was first reported to the WHO on the 31st of December, 2019. World Health Organization declared the virus a global medical emergency outbreak the following day. The virus is spread via daily contact with diverse individuals. Thus, besides health-protective restrictions like border closures, lockdowns, human tracing, and social distancing, social protective regulation is developed to mitigate the spread of the virus. This paper discusses four areas of regional and urban issues associated with the effect of the virus, including the lockdowns and border closures, housing, and social distancing. The COVID-19 pandemic has led to significant losses across all regions and businesses. However, there are long-term and short-term losses that have been experienced. The long-term impacts include; the long-term societal effects, optimism, and fear, change in consumer behavior, human resources will be embraced and increased inequalities.

Throughout the pandemic, many cities incorporated measures to implement lockdowns where individuals were required to be resourceful from their homes. Throughout the lockdowns, numerous corporations had opted for WFH (working from home) approach where workers did not need to visit their workplaces. However, this impact of the virus resulted in diverse working, schooling, and leisure activity methods (Kang, 2020). Through lockdowns, there emerged significant adjustments within the patterns of consumption. Moreover, general retail departments’ e-commerce had tripled within April 2020, whereas the demand for delivery and pick-up services associated with online shopping augmented.

According to a study performed within England, individuals’ interest in living within the rural and suburban areas has increased due to the virus. This interest is derived from the need for a less dense population, unlike the density within cities. Also, a residence that has a home offices section has increased. However, suppose the society after the pandemic is centered on an educational setting and flexible work structures of discerning remote classes that do not need daily traveling. In that case, renewed standards for suburban areas will increase (Kang, 2020). With such adjustments, numerous education and work will begin to occur within an individual’s home. The relevance will be centered on the surrounding spaces and residences conducive to education and employment.

Movement restrictions and distancing measures are regularly regarded as “lockdowns,” where they can reduce the rate of the virus’s transmission through restricting contact between individuals. These measures can disproportionately impact disadvantaged groups, including migrants, individuals in poverty, IDPs that regularly within the under-resourced and overcrowded environment, and rely on everyday labor for survival. Moreover, this measure might substantially negatively affect people, societies, and communities by bringing economic and social life to a nearer stop (Søreide et al., 2020). World Health Organization recognizes that, throughout various points, nations have needed to provide stay-at-home orders along with other measures (WHO, 2020).

For a pandemic-hit region or city like Wuhan located in China, the traveling out or in the area was clogged. Moreover, numerous nations announced the closing of every border temporarily to deal with the hazardous disease outbreak. Border closures and lockdown impact the international value chain (Søreide et al., 2020). When some nations begin limiting crosswise trade borders, diverse countries are expected to follow the route; thus weakening the economy’s recovery. The impact of border closure was felt through various categories: imports and exports, legal immigration; travel; cross-border shopping; and illegal immigration.

Housing affordability relies fundamentally on the association between the cost of annual occupancy of suburban units as per their quality ($O) and the metropolitan-level home annual capacity to pay distribution ($A). Thus, housing affordability results from both the labor and housing markets (Kang, 2020). There has been a direct and essential impact regarding labor demand through the virus, resulting in an increase in job losses and a significant decrease in both $A and median household revenue.

Due to lack of infection concerns and job opportunities, few homes would consider short and long-distance travel throughout the pandemic time. Moreover, the virus has brought about increased issues in housing supply chains and decreased home construction. Homes that are susceptible to housing dangers will mostly be comprised of individuals affected by the labor market. Some homes, particularly within retail, entertainment, and hospitality sectors, experience a decreased $A close to 0 where the houses can’t recompense their mortgages or rents (Kang, 2020). Most of these homes will be needed to decrease to 0 through “doubling-up” with diverse family friends or members or moving to less sufficient housing. The inequality within the accommodation has been viewed as a problem throughout the civic health tragedy throughout the pandemic.

There has been ample evidence regarding the critical organization between housing adequacies along with protection against the virus. Throughout Mumbai, the informal regions have faced severe medical problems due to inadequate sanitation and water access and the intense pollution of the air, where it has now turned to a Covid-19 hotspot. Maintaining sheltering safely and social distance against respiratory pathogens is impossible within these poor housing situations. Also, within different better-off regions, various long-term care amenities that accommodate individuals with a disability and the elderly have shown signs of unsafe. 

The other impact of Covid-19 is the need for the incorporation of technology. Utilizing human tracing for response and identification of infection routes amongst people demonstrates the problem of discretion invasion. Several digital technologies types mean to decrease the Covid-19 spread, like the proximity tracing instruments that have been broadly implemented and developed. Amongst them is the DP3T “Decentralized Privacy-Preserving Proximity Tracing” and the PEPP-PT “Decentralized Privacy-Preserving Proximity Tracing,” which is regarded as an ideal approach, which reflects the privacy protection principles (Kang, 2020). Implementing a similar structure, Google and Apple jointly demonstrated a PPCT “Privacy-Preserving Contact Tracing” application. 

These applications are designed carefully to secure an individual’s privacy. Devices such as Bluetooth communications are recorded where a close contact data history is maintained. Every 15 minutes, unsystematic Bluetooth ID switches, whereas the structure uses pseudonyms; therefore, privacy is highly secured. The contact data stays within the gadget for the epidemiological assessment period that is typically a few weeks. If an operator test positive, potentially infected people will be informed through the documented Bluetooth contact antiquity. This notification might be automatically made via the operator’s device below the decentralized structure, ensuring high privacy. This procedure is entirely dependent on the voluntary participation y users that consent towards deciphering the recorded information.

Long term impacts of the pandemic

The COVID-19 pandemic has led to significant losses across all regions and businesses. However, there are long-term and short-term losses that have been experienced. The long-term impacts include; the long-term societal effects, optimism, fear, change in consumer behavior, human resources will be embraced, and increased inequalities. There is long-term societal impact; they include consumer behavior changes, inequality worsening, the roles of technology, and the nature of work. The above aspect in home and workplaces will change life for many years for individuals, society, and the workforce. Their crisis has social dimensions inclusive of continued stress, and people will feel generational frictions worldwide. The societal consequences will be created and handled in a long time (John, 2020).

Optimism and fear: for the business community, there has been a provision that has ensured support for their customers and employees. In other sectors worldwide, the combination of fiscal and furloughing policies has helped put the economies on hold. As the countries are emerging from the current health crisis and their economies are restarting, work practices are changing, changed attitudes in traveling, consumption, and commuting will change prospects of employment. In the present assessments, labor organizations have identified informal sectors and SMEs are likely to have difficulties recovering and sustaining business. 

There will be changes in consumer behaviors: currently, the behaviors are already changing, and going into the future, there are likely to change in other ways unknown yet. As we are visibly in the stabilization stage, businesses have already started feeling consumer behavior changes. There has been a gradual decrease in consumers’ expenditure, and it is expected to continue more towards the future. Expenditure has changed where the consumers are now focused on their needs more than they want; this shift will hugely affect businesses and economies.

Human resources will be essential: working remotely risks isolation, smoking, alcohol dependency, and poor ergonomic postures. In the past, employers assumed that it was safe to monitor their employees at the workplaces, but now to thrive and survive, they are forced t let them work from home. The human resource department has come in handy in dealing with such issues. This will be a long-term change in attitudes in the historic private vs. public debate (John, 2020). 

The effect will slow down the return to pre-COVID-19 times, a lengthy and challenging task. There is no particular working drug or vaccination that has proved to be workable in the long term. Hence, governments will make considerable investments in the health sector and research centers moving into the future. The uncertainty is going to affect some sectors example, hospitality and tourism. Due to the uncertain nature of the disease, we will not see all the laid-off employees getting back to work in the future. Hence the challenge of returning to normal can be viewed as psychological as it is economical. 

Moving into the future, there will be a need to reconcile the fears that the people have. The concern will loom around for a long time as there are border restrictions and red zones on our planet; there are situations that may still call for lockdowns, hence in the long-term, people will have to deal with the present uncertainties. The government is working on sending the infection rates data and the risks involved in exposure to people; this, in turn, has created fears for individuals. The alleged absence of transparency may cause erosion of trust in the world and generate more enormous complications (John, 2020).

Are inequalities there here to stay? The speed and timing of economic recovery may depend on the health crisis solutions, but it is likely to cause mental health issues, inequality, and depletion of societal cohesion. The wealth gap between the old and the young is more likely to increase and pose employment and educational challenges that may risk a generation of youth getting lost due to the present conditions. The pandemic has already hit most poor people and socially disadvantaged people in a more significant way. In most places, individuals are faced with the moral dilemmas of getting to work to get money for their daily expenditure or to stay at their homes to avoid the virus while protecting their families. Continued exposure for essential workers to health risks whore are mostly paid low raise a concern of increased deaths for this group members. In the future, more inequalities will be exposed as the pandemic has made some issues clearer and brought them to the picture. 

The societal disruption and lockdowns will affect the mental health of youths and young adults and their well-being. There will be more trying times for the children moving into the future as there will be reduced opportunities in the employment sector. This is a danger in the future as we can be almost sure it will take a toll on the health of many youths who had expectations and set goals. In developing countries, it might be worse as the unemployment levels are rising, which may cause unrest in the future. 

There may be inequality in education moving forward. There is a current on and off mode of schooling for students across the world. In developing countries, there are no tools that will ensure online studies will take place from home. This possibility of educational inequality among the female gender will mostly be a disadvantage in the labor market; hence, inequality will be magnified (John, 2020).

The effects of past pandemics.

Influenza was an example from 1918 to 1920. The researchers analyzed the mortality data of the world and their GDP. The mortality rates varied in different regions as others-imposed quarantine ad others did not. There is no specific region where the flu originated, but it became more associated with Spain since Spain was the first to report it. There were many deaths recorded due to the pandemic. Hence, we can tell among the effects of the past pandemics is the loss of lives.

The research suggested a reduction of per capita by a six percent margin and the consumption by the private sectors by 8%; these declines are almost similar to those experienced in the 2009-2008 recession. The pandemic affected the per capita of the people across the world, but the more sophisticated countries that we’re able to implement quarantine were not affected as much as others (Steve, 2020). 

A decline in economic activities combined with increased inflations resulted in stock returns (Steve, 2020). The stocks fell significantly for the regions that were not equipped in the health sector. There were losses financially for almost all areas, but in the end, some parts felt the loss more than others, depending on the policies their governments had put in place.

There was inequality; the regions were all hit by influenza simultaneously, but the losses were different. Some countries were hit hard than others, dependent on their health policies and abilities to deal with the crisis. Regions that we could recover faster meant that they were in business and thriving while others were struggling with deaths and economic losses.


The past and present pandemics all show how there is inequality in the time of the pandemic. Moving forward, there should be calls to ensure equality to curb the long-term effects of the pandemic. The societal disruption and lockdowns will affect the mental health of youths and young adults and their well-being. There will be more trying times for the children moving into the future as there will be reduced opportunities in the employment sector. The government predicts a return to normalcy over time but also insists it will take time. The effects should be fought by all sectors from the government, the private sectors, and individuals. The government is keen on setting up strategies that will help ensure businesses get back and run. Supporting businesses will ensure employment levels are retained over time hence reducing the expected loss in jobs. There are expectations for the numbers to increase in the future since the vaccine is not yet embraced wholly and its efficiency is not yet proven.


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