Lesson 3: The Civil War
In the Civil War, most battles have two names. The name which sounds like a land area (town, region, railroad junction, church, etc.) is the Confederate name. The name which sounds like a body of water (river, creek, stream, etc.) is the Union name. The same type of naming was used for the various armies in the Civil War. Confederate armies were named for land areas, and Union armies were named for bodies of water. The first real land battle of the Civil War came in July 1861; it was this battle of Manassas or Bull Run. Manassas was the name of the nearest town and railroad junction, so this was the Confederate name for the battle. The nearest body of water, however, was a stream called Bull Run. Hence, the Union name for the battle.
The battle was poorly planned for both sides. The Union’s plan was for its Army of the Potomac, headed by Irving McDowell, to march across the Potomac River and into Virginia, down the main road to Richmond, which was the object to capture. The Confederate Army of Northern Virginia, headed by P. G. T. Beauregard, was playing defense, so all it could do was guess from whence the Union attack would come, and then try to stop it. The attack came almost straight across the river from Washington, D. C., along the main road. As the Army of the Potomac moved west and then south along the road, civilian spectators (men, women, and children) from Washington, D. C., followed behind in carriages with picnic baskets so they could watch the Union army teach the rebels a lesson.
At first, it looked as though that was exactly what would happen. McDowell’s army pierced the Rebel defenses and drove them back. But before the Yankees could break through and on to Richmond, General Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson arrived with reinforcements. Jackson staved off the Union offensive and then drove back the Army of the Potomac. What started as an orderly Union retreat back toward Washington, D. C., soon turned into an all-out panic as thousands of Union soldiers turned and ran for their lives. Cannonballs fell all around them and even on top of the hills where the civilian spectators were sitting enjoying their picnic lunches. They, too, had to flee for their lives. The first real land battle in the Civil War thus turned into a Confederate route of the Union army.
President Lincoln and the U. S. Army high command were embarrassed. Davis and the Confederates were elated. Unfortunately, winning is sometimes losing. In this case, the worst thing that could have happened for the Confederates was for them to embarrass the Yankees this way. It gave the Rebels even more foolish overconfidence than they had to start with. Meanwhile, the Yankees suddenly were awakened to the reality of war. They knew this would be no picnic. From now on they would treat this war with deadly seriousness. Lincoln and his army advisors then worked up a long-term strategy for winning the war. The highest ranking general in the Union army at the beginning of the war was “Old Fuss and Feathers” from the Mexican War, Winfield Scott. He developed what historians later called the “Anaconda Plan.” It had three parts: 1) blockade the whole southern coastline to prevent cotton from being exported and food and other supplies from being imported to the South. This would hopefully starve the South into submission over a long period of time. 2) take control of the Mississippi River and thus cut the Confederacy in two. Three southern states were located either partially or completely west of the Mississippi: Texas, Arkansas, and Louisiana; and thousands of Missourians also mustered into the Confederate army. They could be eliminated from the war if the Union army and navy could take control of the Mississippi. In order to take control, however, they would have to capture New Orleans, Vicksburg, and several smaller fort cities along the river. 3) capture the Confederate capitol Richmond.
Let us visualize this strategy as it was laid out on a map of North America. There were three theaters of war in the Civil War: the eastern, the western, and the trans-Mississippi. The eastern theater was mainly the area around Richmond and the state of Virginia, although technically it extended down to the Carolinas, Georgia, and Florida. The main two armies that engaged in the eastern theater throughout the war were the Union’s Army of the Potomac and the Confederacy’s Army of Northern Virginia. The western theater was the land in and beyond the Appalachian Mountains but east of the Mississippi river. The two main armies to fight in this theater were the Union Army of the Tennessee (River) and the Confederate Army of Tennessee. The trans-Mississippi theater lay in the states west of the Mississippi River. Although there was some intense fighting there, it was largely inconsequential to the outcome of the war because the Union would prove successful at capturing the Mississippi River and knocking Texas,
Louisiana, Arkansas, and Missouri out of the war. So, we will merely note that some serious battles occurred there, but otherwise we will not discuss them. We will focus instead on the battles in the eastern and western theaters.
Now that Lincoln had a plan, he was ready to prosecute his war against the “states in rebellion.” But he would simultaneously have to fight a war of public opinion at home in the northern states. Remember that he had been elected with less than half of the votes in the United States, and only about half of the northern
voters chose him for President as well. Northern Democrats opposed Lincoln, his administration, his war policies, his Republican party, the Union army, and all efforts to do anything good for southern slaves. These northern Democrats, who called themselves “Peace Democrats,” were led during the Civil War by an Ohio Congressman named Clement Vallandigham. He and his Peace Democrats were labeled the “Copperheads” by Republicans because they lived among the good patriotic people of the North and blended in with them, but like the venomous snake of the same name, they would strike and bite at Lincoln every chance they got. They made Lincoln’s job much more difficult than it otherwise would have been. And it was already hard enough.
In the western theater in 1862, an obscure Union general named Ulysses S. Grant, distinguished himself by capturing two Confederate forts—one on the Tennessee River and one on the Cumberland River—along the Kentucky-Tennessee border. These two forts, Ft. Henry and Ft. Donelson, guarded the entrance to the Tennessee valley and the heart of Dixie. After Grant captured the forts, he moved his army south along the Tennessee River and camped a few miles north of the Mississippi state line at a place called Pittsburgh Landing. There, in April 1862, the first truly bloody battle of the Civil War was fought, the Battle of Shiloh. Confederate General Albert Sydney Johnston led his forces on a surprise attack of the Union army. The battle lasted two days, and in the end it was a draw. Neither side won or lost, but both sides suffered many thousands of casualties. Also, during the battle Johnston was killed, which was a great loss for the Confederacy. After the battle the Confederate forces withdrew into Mississippi. Grant’s army thus came out of the battle on the offensive, pursuing into Mississippi. His next objective was the Confederate fortress at Vicksburg on the Mississippi River. It would take him more than a year to fight his way down to Vicksburg and lay siege on the city. (So, for now, we will leave Grant and his Army of the Tennessee fighting in Mississippi and check on his progress later).
Meanwhile, in the eastern theater, Presidents Lincoln and Davis had both changed the leadership of their respective armies. Lincoln fired McDowell after the humiliating defeat at Bull Run and replaced him with General George “Little Mac” McClellan. He was one of the best generals the Union army had . . . on paper. He could draw up exceptionally well-laid battle plans. But his implementation of those plans on the actual field of battle turned out not to be so spectacular. He was slow, cautious, and plodding, always wanting to dot every i and cross every t before proceeding. His job was the same as McDowell’s had been: capture Richmond. His plan was to bring the Army of the Potomac down the river to the Chesapeake Bay, and land it east of Richmond, and move by land up on the city from its less-defended eastern/southern side. It was a classic flanking maneuver that came to be called the Peninsular Campaign (a campaign is a series of battles fought in one general location during a war). It was a good idea on paper, but it did not work in real life. The campaign bogged down . . . literally. The weather was terrible, and that part of Virginia was naturally swampy anyway. The Union army’s advance was far too slow due partly to the mud, and partly to McClellan’s tendency to be overly cautious, which allowed Confederate General Joe Johnston to swing his defenses south of Richmond and fight off the attack. The Peninsular Campaign was thus a Confederate victory, but Joe Johnston was wounded and had to sit out for several months recuperating. This allowed one of his subordinates, Robert E. Lee, to move up and take command of the Army of Northern Virginia.
Lincoln was displeased with McClellan’s lack of leadership in the Peninsular Campaign, so he fired him and replaced him with John Pope. Pope was not a good choice to lead the Union Army of the Potomac. He decided to try a more direct approach to Richmond. In fact, it was the same approach that Irving McDowell had used a year earlier. He would march his army south along the main road and attack Richmond from the north side. Unfortunately for Pope, he met with the same result as McDowell. Robert E. Lee’s Confederates met Pope’s army at Manassas again. This Second Battle of Manassas, or Second Bull Run, was another Confederate victory and another Union defeat. So, Lincoln fired Pope and rehired McClellan, whom Lincoln personally did not like but realized that the soldiers loved. Lincoln thus gave Little Mac a second chance.
McClellan had his army camped in Maryland, north of Washington, D. C. He was planning his next offensive against Richmond, but he never got the chance to carry it out. Lee in Virginia was simultaneously planning an attack on Washington. Lee’s plan called for crossing the Potomac River north of Washington and flanking it from the back side. Unfortunately for Lee, in a stroke of fate, the plans for the attack were stolen and sent to McClellan in advance. McClellan’s army was thus prepared when Lee crossed the river into Maryland. The result was another one of the bloodiest conflicts of the war, the Battle of Antietam, in which many thousands were killed and wounded on each side. In the end, Lee’s army retreated south back to Virginia. McClellan had the opportunity to pursue the retreating Rebels, but he chose not to. He said his men needed rest. They were hungry, dehydrated, and had not slept in three days. He chose to let them recuperate, sort of like congratulating them for a job well done. The Union soldiers loved Little Mac for that. But Lincoln was furious! He was outraged. He could hardly contain his contempt for McClellan. How dare a general of the United States Army allow a bunch of ragtag Rebels to escape, said Lincoln. He believed that if McClellan had just pursued the enemy, he could have destroyed Lee’s army once and for all. The war would have been over right then and there. But, McClellan seized defeat from the jaws of victory. So, Lincoln fired him . . . again.
Lincoln still did not have a good replacement for McClellan, however. He installed Ambrose E. Burnside as the new commander of the Army of the Potomac. Burnside was a big man with bright red hair and large pork chop side burns and a mustache. He, in fact, popularized that particular facial hair-do. [It is from his name that we get the word “side burns”]. His plan for attacking Richmond went through the town of Fredericksburg, Virginia. Although his army heavily outnumbered the Confederate forces there at Fredericksburg, it could never break through to get to Richmond. The Confederates, led by a group of Mississippians there, repulsed Burnside’s attack and inflicted heavy casualties. Lincoln fired Burnside.
By the end of the summer of 1862, President Lincoln was looking like a totally incompetent war-time leader. He was unable to find a decent general to lead his Army of the Potomac. He was being ridiculed in all the newspapers on both sides of the country and around the world. He was getting desperate. So, he decided to do something that represented a radical departure from his campaign rhetoric: he decided to issue a presidential proclamation that would free the slaves—on paper. This so-called “Emancipation Proclamation” was issued in September 1862 but did not take effect until January 1, 1863. It was more of a propaganda tool than anything else. In it, Lincoln freed the slaves who lived in the eleven states then in rebellion against the United States. It did not free the slaves who lived in the four border states that remained loyal to the Union. So, Lincoln claimed to free the slaves in the Confederacy, where currently he had no authority to free them, and did not free the slaves where he did have the authority to free them. Why? The reason for not freeing those slaves whom he could actually free was that he did not want to offend the slave holders of the four loyal border states. They were mainly rich and influential leaders in the communities of those states, and he needed their support. He could not afford to alienate more supporters, because more than enough people hated him already.
The reasons for claiming to free the slaves in the Confederates states were three: 1) to convince England and France to stay out of the war. Both of those countries had already abolished slavery. They opposed the institution on moral grounds. Lincoln figured that they would be less likely to support the Confederacy if the United States finally took a stand against slavery. It worked. 2) to encourage slaves living in the Confederate states to rebel against their masters and thus cause confusion and chaos in the South. Maybe, Lincoln reasoned, once the slaves hear that the President of the United States has declared them free, they will want to claim their freedom. It did not work. 3) to scare the wits out of the southern slave holders. Perhaps if they had to keep one eye on their slaves who might be plotting rebellion, thought Lincoln, they would have only one eye left to keep on the Union army. It turned out not to be a factor. Curiously, most slaves remained loyal to their masters right up to the end of the Civil War.
After Lincoln made that bold, strategic, political move of issuing the Emancipation Proclamation, he still needed to find a general who could defeat Robert E. Lee on the battlefield. He hired “Fightin’ Joe” Hooker. Hooker probably would have been a good general if he could have kept his mind more on the “fightin’” and less on his entourage of women admirers. He kept one eye on his lady companions during the war, which left him with only one eye to watch the Confederate army. He had a steady stream of women coming into and going out of his headquarters. Newspaper reporters commented on this peculiar spectacle and began calling these lady friends “Hooker’s girls.” [From that description we get our modern word “hooker” to describe prostitutes]. Hooker’s plan for capturing Richmond went through the town of Chancellorsville, Virginia. Again, Lee’s army was outnumbered two-to-one, but it still repulsed the Union army and made the Battle of Chancellorsville one of the worst defeats for the Union army in the entire war. Lincoln fired Hooker and replaced him with George Meade.
A major, shocking development that occurred for the Confederates at Chancellorsville, however, was the death of General Stonewall Jackson. He was not killed by the Union army; he was killed by his own men. He was riding and scouting at dusk after the battle, when he rode into his own camp and failed to identify himself properly. He thought his men would recognize him, but it was too dark. They decided to shoot first and ask questions later. It was a tragic mistake. Robert E. Lee lost his best general here at Chancellorsville.
Meanwhile, over in the western theater again, Grant has been busy fighting his way toward Vicksburg, which was the most impregnable Confederate fort on the Mississippi River. In order to achieve part two of the Anaconda Plan, the Union army had to take control of Vicksburg. That would open the entire river to the Union forces and would cut the Confederacy in two. The problem was that Vicksburg was located on a bluff about 300 feet above the river. On one side, there was nothing but
a cliff dropping straight off from the city to the river. It was unassailable. On the other side, there were miles of high hills and deep valleys covered in briars, thistles, thorns, and other swampy undergrowth. Moving an army over that terrain was near impossible and was definitely impractical. Then, the one good main road that approached the city was defended heavily by the Confederates under the command of General Pemberton.
So, Grant had a difficult task in figuring out a way to capture Vicksburg. He, in fact, tried it from five different directions before finally getting it right. He crossed the river into Louisiana north of Vicksburg, moved south about 50 miles, recrossed the river south of Vicksburg, moved northeast about 30 miles, and then attacked the Confederate defenses along the main road. He managed to push the Rebels back into the city where they were bottled up. Grant then laid siege on the city, holding both the Confederate army and the civilians (women, children, and slaves) captive for about 2 months. Finally, on July 4, 1863, Pemberton and the people of Vicksburg—after eating all the real food, then eating all the horses, then eating all the dogs, cats, rats, mice, lizards, and whatever they could find—surrendered. It was a glorious victory for the Union!
Meanwhile, back in the eastern theater, an important development occurred at the same time as Vicksburg was falling. At the end of June 1863, Robert E. Lee’s army crossed the Potomac River again and headed north of the Mason-Dixon Line into Pennsylvania. There, on July 1-3, 1863, as Lee was making his second great offensive on the Union side of the Potomac, the unanticipated Battle of Gettysburg occurred. Neither side planned a battle at Gettysburg; it just happened. The battle lasted for three days and became the single bloodiest battle of the entire war, with about 25,000 casualties on the Union side and 30,000 on the Confederate side. It was one of the few times in the whole war when the Confederates suffered higher casualties than the Union. And they could not afford such losses. On the third day, Lee retreated south, back across the Mason-Dixon Line, across the Potomac River, and into Virginia. Meade had the opportunity to pursue, but he made the same decision that McClellan had made after Antietam. He chose to let his hungry, tired, sleepy, wounded, and scared men rest. Another opportunity to crush the Rebel resistance had been lost.
On July 4, 1863, the United States was set to celebrate Independence Day, just as it always had since 1776. On that day, Lincoln received telegrams from Grant at Vicksburg and Meade at Gettysburg saying that they had each won their battles. Now there was really something to celebrate! Two great victories for the Union army on the same day a thousand miles apart! [And here the students all hear the strains of the Battle Hymn of the Republic in the background: “Glory, Glory, Hallelujah—Glory, Glory, Hallelujah—Glory, Glory, Hallelujah, His Truth is Marching On!”] This day was so important to the United States and the Union army in the Civil War, that it is called the turning point of the Civil War, for three reasons: 1) Before Vicksburg and Gettysburg, the Union had lost most of the battles. Afterward, the Union would win most of the battles. 2) It convinced England and France once and for all not to join the side of the Confederacy. They did not want to support a losing cause. 3) Finally, it was devastating to the Confederates psychologically. They realized that, as hard as their road to independence had been thus far, it would now suddenly get much harder.
After Vicksburg fell, Lincoln finally took notice of Grant. He moved the general from the western theater to the eastern theater. Although Meade would continue to lead the Army of the Potomac from headquarters, Grant would now lead it on the battlefield. Finally, Lincoln had found his man! Grant would be the one to get the job done, as we shall soon see. Meanwhile, Grant’s second in command, William Tecumseh “Cump” Sherman took over in the western theater. His job was to destroy the Confederacy’s transportation and communication systems and its food supplies. In order to do that, he would have to capture southern towns and cities, burn them to the ground, and tear up hundreds of miles of railroad tracks. In short, he would need to lay waste to the South’s infrastructure.
Sherman’s first main objective was to capture Atlanta, which was one of the South’s major cities and most important railroad intersection points. In order to do that, he had to first capture Chattanooga, which was another major city and railroad intersection point. The battle for Chattanooga at the end of 1863 took place mainly on Lookout Mountain, which is more than 1,000 feet above the city of Chattanooga and the Tennessee River. Because of this, it is sometimes called the “Battle Above the Clouds.” Despite the fact that the Confederates held this virtually unassailable high ground, Sherman’s army proved successful in this battle, due to poor Confederate leadership. From there, the Army of the Tennessee battled its way south into Georgia, where it fought the Battle of Chickamauga, in which Union General George Thomas earned the nickname “The Rock of Chickamauga” for his heroic leadership.
As the war continued into 1864, Sherman’s army pressed on southward to Atlanta. It met Confederate resistance at the Battle of Kennesaw Mountain, but Sherman flanked the mountain and headed on to Atlanta. [When thinking about Atlanta in 1864, the student should not picture a giant city with tall buildings like Atlanta is today. At that time, it was a town with a population of about 11,000. That was still a fairly big city by southern standards at that time. Compare that to New York City, which already had a population of more than 1,000,000 in 1864.] Sherman surrounded the city and laid siege on it. It was defended at first by Confederate General Joe Johnston, but Jefferson Davis did not like Johnston’s style of leadership, so he fired him and replaced him with an inferior general named John Bell Hood. Hood made some serious tactical blunders, which made Sherman’s job all the easier. Atlanta fell in the summer of 1864. Sherman burned it. It was, as they say, “gone with the wind.”
From there, Sherman began his infamous “March to the Sea.” The ultimate objective was Savannah, which was a major southern port city much bigger than Atlanta. Along the way to Savannah, however, lay the fertile farm land which grew most of the Confederacy’s food crops. Sherman burned a 30-to-60 mile wide path all the way through that 250-mile stretch of farm land between Atlanta and Savannah. He arrived at Savannah and laid siege on the city in December. By Christmas, it had fallen to the Union army. Sherman then sent President Lincoln the message that Savannah was now in Union hands. Sherman presented the city to Lincoln as a Christmas present in 1864. After Savannah, Sherman led his army north into South Carolina, where he continued the burning and destruction. Ultimately, he burned his way across the Palmetto State and into North Carolina. That is where he was in the spring of 1865 when the war finally came to an end.
Meanwhile, after the fall of Vicksburg in July 1863, President Lincoln made the wise decision to transfer Ulysses S. Grant from the western theater to the eastern theater. In early 1864, Grant began his move on Richmond. It was called the Wilderness Campaign. It was here that Grant acquired the nickname “Butcher Grant” for his strategy of sending thousands upon thousands of young northern soldiers to their deaths, which critics believed was unnecessary for winning the war. After a couple of battles in the campaign, soldiers in Grant’s army of the Potomac began to realize that Grant’s strategy was simply to overwhelm Robert E. Lee’s army with superior numbers. They knew what that meant: many of them would have to die. They began the practice of wearing name tags and carrying letters addressed to their parents, wives, or girlfriends in case they died in battle. Many of them had their fear of death confirmed. Grant’s strategy resulted in the deaths of more than 50,000 men during the Wilderness Campaign. Although Lee’s army lost fewer men, Lee could not afford to lose any. By 1864, the Confederates were virtually starving, they were wearing rags rather than uniforms, and many had no shoes at all to wear even during the coldest winter months. Clearly, it was only a matter of time before the Confederacy would have to capitulate.
Grant’s strategy of pounding away and pounding away with superior numbers worked. Lee’s army ultimately retreated and thus abandoned defense of the Confederate capitol of Richmond. The Confederate government collapsed in late 1864, and the leaders of the Confederacy, including Jefferson Davis, had to flee for their lives. Robert E. Lee’s army continued to fight on in Virginia, however, until the spring of 1865, as did Joe Johnston’s army in the Carolinas. By April 1865, exactly four years after the first shots of the Civil War were fired at Fort Sumter, Lee realized his resistance was futile. He surrendered to Grant at Appomattox Court House, deep in the heart of rural Virginia on April 9, 1865. Johnston’s army surrendered to Sherman as soon as Johnston heard the news of Lee’s surrender. The most tragic and bloody war in American history thus came to a close.
The consequences of the Civil War were many, but all were important: 1) The Union of American states was saved. This was Lincoln’s primary purpose in fighting the Civil War in the first place—to preserve the perpetual union of the states—and he succeeded.
2) Slavery was abolished. Because of the Emancipation Proclamation, the U. S. government went on record officially before the eyes of the world as opposing slavery. Afterward, it could not go back. Thus, as the Union armies captured southern territory from 1863 to1865, they liberated the slaves in various parts of the South. At the end of the war, all slaves in all states were set free.
3) The question of state rights versus national sovereignty was finally settled. It had posed an ongoing dilemma for the United States since the American Revolution and Articles of Confederation Period. The U. S. Constitution of 1789 had altered the relationship between the states and the national government, but exactly what that relationship was had been in dispute ever since. Now, it was settled. From now on, the national government in Washington, D. C., would be the only sovereign government in the United States of America. The states would be subordinate (meaning they could not do their own thing; they could only do what the national government allows them to do). Secession and nullification could thus never be attempted again.
4) The political dominance of the South within the national government was destroyed. Before the Civil War, the South dominated every branch of the federal government more often than not, despite the fact that it was less populous and less wealthy than the North. Out of the first 15 Presidents who served before the war, 9 had been southerners, 3 others had been doughfaces, and only 3 had been northerners who were truly opposed to slavery. The South also dominated the Supreme Court. It had put 2 Supreme Court Chief Justices into their jobs back-to-back who served from 1801 to 1862—that’s 61 of the first 73 years of the court’s existence! The South also had more influential congressmen, on the whole, than did the northern states. Yet, the southerners sacrificed all this power for the principles that they believed in, which history has for the most part condemned as erroneous principles.
5) Arguably, all of the first four consequences listed above were positive changes in this country’s history. The last, however, was definitely negative. More than 620,000 young men died fighting the Civil War and approximately 400,000 others were left wounded for life. The death toll in this one war was greater than the combined death tolls of the American Revolution, the War of 1812, the Mexican War, the Spanish-American War, World War I, World War II, and the Korean War. Although this death toll included some 360,000 northerners, the North was not affected by the loss of its young men to nearly the same extent as the South was by losing 260,000 young men. The white male population of the South was only about 1/4th as much as the North’s white male population before the war; after the war it would be even less.
The Civil War
1. How did the CSA name its armies and its battles?
2. How did the USA name its armies and its battles?
3. What were the three theaters of war in the Civil War?
4. Which major armies fought each other east of the Mississippi River?
5. When and where was the first major land battle of the Civil War?
6. Who were the generals in charge of each army?
7. Who was the hero of the battle?
8. What effect did the outcome of this battle have on each side?
9. What was the USA’s long-term strategy for winning the war called, and what were its parts?
10. What were northern Democrats who opposed the war called?
11. Who was their leader?
11. Who led the Army of the Tennessee at the beginning of the war?
12. What was his overall objective in the Western Theater?
13. What two Confederate forts did he capture there in 1862?
14. When, what, and where was the first really bloody battle of the Civil War?
15. Which Confederate general got killed in this battle?
16. Who was considered the Union’s best general at the beginning of the war?
17. What was his plan for capturing Richmond called, and how was it supposed to work?
18. Why did it not work?
19. Which Confederate general got promoted to command of the Army of Northern Virginia in this campaign?
20. Which side seemingly always had the advantage in the Civil War?
21. In which battle in 1862 did Robert E. Lee go on the offensive and lose?
22. What document did the Lincoln administration issue that purported to free the slaves in the states in rebellion, and when did it take effect?
23. Why did Lincoln not free the slaves in the loyal slave states at this time?
24. What were the reasons for claiming to free the slaves in the CSA at this time?
25. What were the two Union victories that became the turning point of the Civil War, and why?
26. What date marks the turning point of the war?
27. Who got promoted to lead the Army of the Potomac in late 1863, and what was his objective?
28. Who got promoted to lead the Army of the Tennessee in late 1863, and what was his objective?
29. How big of a city was Atlanta at the time of the Civil War?
30. Who led Confederate forces defending Atlanta at the beginning of Sherman’s siege?
31. Who got the futile job of trying to defend Atlanta at the end of Sherman’s siege?
32. What was Sherman’s campaign to take Savannah called, and when did it happen?
33. What did Sherman give Lincoln for Christmas in 1864?
34. What was Grant’s great campaign to capture Richmond called?
35. What nickname did he get there and why?
36. What was Grant’s strategy, and was it successful?
37. When and where did Robert E. Lee surrender to Grant?
38. What were the consequences of the Civil War?
39. Write a discussion of about 250 words explaining the main idea and most important points or facts in this chapter.