Note: I love answers that are “concise and correct”. They are easy to grade and it shows that you understood the question. That said, it is more important that you answer the question completely and “literally”. Look at your exam 1 essay scores and the comments I made. Make the necessary adjustments.
Describe the structure of the DNA double helix including the bonds involved.
Explain how the accuracy of DNA replication is maintained.
Compare and contrast DNA polymerase and RNA polymerase in terms of function, template, and product.
What are the 3 major types of RNA and what is the function of each?
Provide 2 reasons why transcription and translation occur simultaneously in prokaryotes but not in eukaryotes.
The xyl operon is transcribed when xylose is present and not transcribed when xylose is absent. What type of operon is this? Explain how it works. (*likely to be worded a little differently on the exam)
The His operon is transcribed when histidine is absent and blocked when histidine is present. What type of operon is this? Explain how it works. (*likely to be worded a little differently on the exam)
Describe two mechanisms by which chemical mutagens cause point mutations (nonsense, missense) and frameshifts.
What are nucleoside analogs and what is the rationale for their use in cancer treatment?
Explain the spread of antibiotic resistance using all of the following terms: R factor (R plasmid), transformation, horizontal transfer, and transposons.
What are the features of a plasmid used for gene cloning?
What is cDNA? How is it made? Why is it necessary for cloning a eukaryotic gene into a prokaryotic host cell?
Why are prokaryotic cells preferred as hosts for gene cloning? When would it be necessary to use a eukaryotic cell as a host?
What is PCR? Describe the process of PCR. Why is PCR necessary for verification of some viral infections?
Describe the (typical) procedure for Covid-19 testing. How is it possible for the test to yield false positive results?
Explain why an antimicrobial such as penicillin has a better therapeutic index than many other antimicrobial agents.
Why are protozoan and viral infections more difficult to treat than bacterial infections?
Most of the antibiotics we use today are semi-synthetic derivatives of antibiotics produced by bacteria. What are some potential benefits of producing these antibiotics?
Provide 3 reasons why we are in danger of running out of useful antibiotics.