Research Title: organizational based training and expatriate training
2. Research Literature Review
2.1. Background Literature
Much research has been conducted on the positive impact of organizational-based and expatriates’ training programs on organizational performance and employee motivation. Expatriates training is part of the entire organization-based training that aims at ensuring employees are well equipped with the proper knowledge, skills, and expertise in their roles, job position, and even work environment. (Peek, 2021) indicates that expatriate training aims to enable an individual to be familiar with a given cultural setting. This training program is mainly adopted by organizations when relocating employees and their families to an international location. It has a significant impact on employees since it ensures they quickly get acclimated to living in their new country (Thomas, 2019). This kind of training is also necessary for the global marketplace in which it enhances effective communication and the general success of the business. (Johnson, 2021) stated that some of the common types of expatriate training programs practiced by various organizations include international business development, which is also referred to as cultural communications, and language courses.
Training assists organizations in building a force of superior human resources, which enables them to gain a competitive advantage. A range of training and development theories are appropriate in designing and effective employees training programs. Some of them include theories of reinforcement, theory of learning type, theory of experiential learning, and even the theory of social learning (Francis, 2018). Apart from enhancing excellent performance, expatriates’ training assists in limiting the amount of waste by ensuring employees get the best organizational training. It also enhances a reasonable cultural expectation and seamless integration. Based on the United Nations statistics, about 3.2% of the general world population, about 232 million people, live outside their home country. Such individuals require expatriates’ training to enable them to adapt to their new work environment.
As indicated by (Dousin, 2021), some of the necessary factors to consider in guaranteeing a successful expatriation training include providing cultural training in which the expatriate needs to have a clear understanding of the cultural values, beliefs, norms, and behavioral patterns of the host country before engaging in the training process. Another approach is to bring closer experts and local employees who are in an excellent position to be appointed as the expatriate’s mentor. The company can also enhance successful expatriation training by offering rewards for home leaves to the affected employees (Smith, 2021). There is also the need to include the whole family in the program to make it successful. There is also domestic training which is a program that aims at equipping local workers with the required skills and expertise to carry out their functions more effectively. Some trained staff lacks the basic skills and ideas on how to handle the apparent things or issues, which might affect their general performance. Successful domestic training can only get enhanced by assessing the employee to determine areas of weakness and strength. That will assist in designing an appropriate training program that addresses their area of weakness.
Most of the secondary research documents used in the study process indicate that expatriate training is very significant and significantly impacts organizational performance. With the increasing cases of global companies, this kind of training becomes more necessary since they will need employees from different geographical regions and cultural backgrounds. According to Jackson (1996), expatriates training assist employees in dealing with the culture shock; when not effectively or adequately exercised, it might become less effective. The article also explores the cross-cultural challenges of expatriates within Saudi Arabia. Brown (2018) carried out numerous analyses of expatriation training on business studies, making it relevant for referral purposes by interested stakeholders. (Ko and Yang, 2011) conducted a study on cross cultural training effects on expatriate assignments. The study extends to talk about the methods used in language training and post-arrival cross-cultural training. The study is also concerned with the impact of certain cross-cultural programs. Working outside the home country develops a different learning process as a study that contained a survey done on 70 American expatriates found that the expatriates gained and involved in the host country culture and that was through the reflective learning style (Shim and Paprock, 2002).
1- Adams, E. (2017, January 29). Internal Training Opportunities, https://reference.jrank.org/employment/Internal_Training_Opportunitie.html
2- Baker, T. (2021, August 12). How to Create an Effective Training Program: 8 Steps to Success. Vector Solutions. https://www.vectorsolutions.com/resources/blogs/how-to-create-an-effective-training-program-8-steps-to-success/
3- Brown, W. (2018, November 2). Why Expatriate training is important for your business. Wortland. https://www.wortland.com/en/expatriate-training/
4- Dousin, O. (2021, April 5). “Stepping out of the ordinary”: exploring cross-cultural challenges of expatriates in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia | Emerald Insight. Emerald Insight. https://www.emerald.com/insight/content/doi/10.1108/RAMJ-01-2021-0004/full/html
5- Four Major Theories of Training and Development. (2018, January 6). MBA Knowledge Base. https://www.mbaknol.com/human-resource-management/four-major-theories-of-training-and-development/
6- Garvin, D. (2021, August 27). Building a Learning Organization. Harvard Business Review. https://hbr.org/1993/07/building-a-learning-organization
7- Hill, S. (2020, October 19). 7 Methods for Insanely Effective Employee Training. Wyzowl. https://www.wyzowl.com/employee-training-methods/
8- Indeed Editorial Team. (2021, February 23). The Importance of Training Employees: 11 Benefits. Indeed Career Guide. https://www.indeed.com/career-advice/career-development/importance-of-training
9- Jackson, D. (1996, March 1). The effectiveness of cross-cultural training for expatriates: An assessment of the literature on the issue. ScienceDirect. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0147176796000016
10- Johnson, A. (2021, September 22). Expatriate Training & Development in IHRM. Geektonight. https://www.geektonight.com/expatriate-training-development-in-ihrm/
11- Ko, H., & Yang, M. (2011). The Effects of Cross-Cultural Training on Expatriate Assignments. Intercultural Communication Studies. https://web.uri.edu/iaics/files/12Hsiu-ChingKoMu-LiYang.pdf
12- Lazell, M. (2021, October 7). Business culture in Saudi Arabia: a guide for expats | Expatica. Expat Guide to Saudi Arabia | Expatica. https://www.expatica.com/sa/working/employment-basics/business-culture-in-saudi-arabia-72658/
13- Peek, S. (2021, July 30). How to Properly Educate and Train Expatriates. Business.Com. https://www.business.com/articles/guide-to-expatriate-education-and-training/
14- Reasons expat assignments fail | Allianz Care. (2018, September 13). Allianzcare. https://www.allianzcare.com/en/employers/employer-blogs/2018/09/expat-failure.html
15- Shim, I., & Paprock, K. (2002). A study focusing on American expatriates’ learning in host countries. International Journal of Training and Development. http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.470.9438&rep=rep1&type=pdf
16- Smith, J. A. D. (2021, July 6). Helping Expatriate Employees Deal with Culture Shock. SHRM. https://www.shrm.org/hr-today/news/hr-magazine/summer2019/pages/helping-expatriate-employees-deal-with-culture-shock.aspx
17- Thomas, F. (2019, November 23). Training Employees In-house Has Powerful Advantages. The Balance Careers. https://www.thebalancecareers.com/tap-the-power-of-internal-training-1919298