Running Head: CHILD ABUSE CHILD ABUSE Child Abuse Savannah Carter Dr. Russell

Running Head: CHILD ABUSE

CHILD ABUSE

Child Abuse

Savannah Carter

Dr. Russell CRIJ 3382 P01

March 3, 2022

Abstract

The acts of unfair treatment against children are on the rise both in developed and developing economies. Most of the child abuse cases go unreported since the cases are usually undercover. Some of the common child abuse cases include sexual harassments, rapes, physical violence that inflict injuries on their bodies, and neglect, leading to emotional and psychological tortures. The researcher has focused on the issue of child abuse to provide details regarding types of child abuse, identification of the cases of the same, and offer policy recommendations to alleviate the issue. The researcher will conduct a literature review of the past works in the same area and offer insights on how the current research finding concurs or differs from the findings of these works. The research data and literature will be gathered from published works, government records, health departments, and others. The data will be further analyzed to get appropriate trends in child abuse and draw conclusions on the matter. The research sample and populations will be determined via a convenience method sampling mechanism and a sample of at least 30 individuals will be used. The researcher will further offer recommendations for future actions and policy changes to amicably handle the issue. 

Introduction

Child abuse is unfair treatment of children either sexually, psychologically, or physically. The issue is a matter of concern to every stakeholder, including healthcare and law enforcement. Child abuse cannot be ignored since it has a long-lasting effect on the growth and development of a child. Child abuse is a severe problem in many societies (Schneider, Waldfogel & Brooks-Gunn, 2017). Sometimes child abuse is conducted by outsiders and by the biological parents of a child. Many forms of child abuse are common in almost every country and include mental abuse, exploitation, physical abuse, abandonment, and sexual abuse. This assignment aims to provide evidence-based information to create awareness of various types of child abuse, identify cases of child abuse, and recommend the best method to reduce the barbaric practice across the globe.

Literature review

Based on Yang et al. (2013), the child is more likely to experience abuse from the immediate family members. The parents should be at the forefront to fulfill their parental responsibilities. Before the government institutions provide recommendations on ways to prevent child abuse, the parents should first act in the best interest of their children. Smith et al. (2014) indicate that government institutions from various countries have policies and laws that ensure maximum protection of children from abuse from any individual, including parents. Based on the authors, parents continue to abuse their children since they believe that they have the final say on the discipline and the life of a child. According to the authors, the most common law that has shown a lot of contribution to protecting a child’s life is the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (UNCRC). The UNCRC protects a child from all forms of abuse, including abandonment by parents, sexual harassment, and physical violence.  

Based on the article written by Morin, 2019, is that parents carry the more considerable blame for the psychological abuse of their children. Psychological abuse is also known as emotional abuse. Children are mainly affected psychologically when parents and caregivers use excessive physical punishment on their children. Various forms of abuse can be initiated by parents and include manipulations, terrorizing and isolation, ignoring them, and rejecting them. Sugaya et al. (2012) believe that physical abuse has a long-lasting effect on the growth and development of children. The physical abuse includes burns and fractures. Some parents punish their children excessively, sometimes even burning and fracturing them.

Sexual abuse is also a common method to violate a child’s rights. Sexual harassment includes rape, touching a child’s genital parts, forcing a child to touch an adult’s genital parts, sexual exploitation, and having intercourse with a child (Murray, Nguyen & Cohen, 2014). The authors also indicate that a child is more likely to be exposed to sexual abuse by close family members. (Mathews, Pacella, Dunne, Simunovic & Marston, 2020) indicates that child neglect is a form of child abuse. There is various type of neglect as a form of child abuse. The most common type of negligence is physical, where many parents leave their children without food, clothing, and shelter. On the other hand, educational neglect is when parents fail to provide education support, such as buying school uniforms and paying the school fees. The authors indicate that emotional neglect is when parents fail to support and love their children, mainly when they are sick in a particular abnormal challenge. 

Gaps and possible research questions

In most cases, the adults understand the repercussion of child abuse, but the children older enough to know their rights lack enough information on where they can report when they are abused (Bartlett, Kotake, Fauth & Easterbrooks, 2017). How can children know their rights, and where can they report when their rights are violated? Future researchers should concentrate comprehensive information on laws and policies that facilitate awareness of children about their rights. Secondly, most of the rules are general, such as UNCRC. How can human rights activists and children access laws that specifically address child abuse? Future researchers should be aggressive and proactive in investigating specific laws that protect a child. For instance, the researchers should categorize various laws and address laws that prevent parents from using excessive force when punishing their children.

There is a huge gap between the collaboration between the law enforcers and medical interventions when protecting children from any abuse. The law enforcers should access information from the healthcare professionals regarding children abuse. The lawbreakers should be prosecuted based on the clinical evidence provided by doctors and nurses regarding physical and emotional damage to a child due to misuse.

Proposed study

Purpose of the study

For the last ten years, the world has recorded increased child abuse cases from the statistic that has been corrected from various units, indicating that the graph has been positively glowing. This challenge needs deliberation group policy development and review of existing regulations in the wider view. By so doing, various stakeholders realize the benefit of filling in the niche, increasing this challenge. Hypothetically, increased child abuse has been recorded by the world Health care organization as a form of maltreatment when to a lack of comprehensive care tells the children (Chen et al., 2019). 

In some quick facts outlined by the world Health care organization, 100 million children aged between two and four years have regularly suffered from physical punishment and psychological violence from their parents and their respective caregiver. One hundred twenty million girls and young women who are years of age have also suffered from first sexual contact. Consequently, children’s treatment has led to impaired physical and mental health-related challenges for long life. Therefore, these have negatively affected social and occupational outcomes that have ultimately slowed down the country’s economic and social development status.

The various questions should be examined and outlined positively to help manage this challenge. In the wider view, we should be able to analyze the form of exposure of the consequences of child abuse and various forms of child abuse and the effects. It should outline and be itchy checked on both physical injury and anxiety that it can lead to (Donnelly, 2021). In major cases, every such framework will outline the effect of toxic stress associated with early childhood abuse and permanent impairment of brain development damage. On the same note, it will outline the nervous system and the worst victims healing from this kind of torture in the world.

In the second set of analyses, we will outline and focus on the role of policy development and its protection against violence against children right. This includes the rule of the convention of rights of the child and the sustainable goal development organization that reassures the country’s commitment to end violence against children. This research framework will outline the role of UNICEF in its effort to partner with the government in the worldwide organization to prevent and respond to violence against children in all extended contexts. This assessment will also assess the role of the government and the justice system alongside other social services. In a rational-based evaluation, the research will evaluate and outline increased cases of murder and the relationship between the torturing of the boy shot alongside a girl. In most cases, the proposed study introduces Christchurch to the gun show despite the successful rehabilitation and control measures. Therefore, the research will outline the reason behind our respective frameworks that should be put in place.

Methods

The method section will outline the participants of the research, the designs that will be involved, and the materials that will be put during the data collection process. Sure active participation in the research process and gaining a significant response will be used to make the right and utmost decision. When these measures are put in place, a considerable process will be realized when developing strategies to reduce child abuse and negligence that has continued to increase. It will also assess the improved parental capacity and their role in extending the child welfare program.

In the research framework, an interview process where participants were interviewed and answered some complex questions on child abuse and some response framework that should be put in place (Nurse, 2021). On the same note, used questionnaire interviewees what required to feel some parts having restricted questions having exclamatory questions where they answered the question in detail. The research participants were 30 in number examined from various regions where child labor has increased greatly (Patterson, 2020). This defined analysis of the extent of quality assurance and improvement strategies should be put in place to realize a practical child welfare program that eliminates conflict burnout and increased workload with a poor organizational culture.

Research Design

The large component of the research will take a qualitative analysis, and a secondary data analysis approach will be done. These include analyzing electronic shared materials and then sending them back to the same channel where they were initialized. Some of the data correction models and strategies used include the case studies and checklist. Besides that, making some quick observations help the group in focusing on analysis parameters. Carrying out a survey and documentation analysis will help collect data recorded in various offices whose primary role is to focus on and create a sustainable environment for children. It will help make the right assessment and find data that can be implemented in cases of child abuse in the world.

The data correction model will follow a step-by-step basis which will begin by assessing the most affected areas and then sending teams that will collect data from the respective process. On the same note, the step-by-step participation process will be child offices, and the government of these cases will be recorded.

Data Collection Tools

The various models will be used to collect data and make the right response framework. In this case, they include using an online platform where forms will be shared and responses will be analyzed before making the right attribute and conclusions (Patterson, 2020). On the same note, we will have some questionnaires that will be used to gather data and make some assessments. The quality, in this case, will play a major role in making the right response framework and extended decision.

Implications

The study will positively contribute to the development of better policies that will curb the rising challenges of child abuse. This study will play a critical role in offering recommendations on the various actions that can be embraced to enhance the efficiency of the contemporary child protection policies and how the governments can intervene in the process of implementing future policies (Ryan, 2021). The study will be a critical source of literature review for future learners interested in furthering explorations in the area of child abuse. The author will further provide insights into the current status of child abuse in the USA and globally as the research will offer a clearer picture of the height of the matter through the outcomes of the data analysis, a discussion of the causes of the challenges, and the amicable strategies of overcoming the same including its adverse effects on the victims and the society.

Limitations of the study

Some of the primary limitations evident in the research process include that the sample utilized was limited to 30 participants and may not adequately depict the true picture of the issue of child abuse in the larger society both in America and globally. The researcher has focused on the already available child abuse data in the government offices yet in most cases, the child abuse cases go unreported (Tener, Newman, Yates, & Tarshish, 2020). The researcher has left out the most affected regions such as the areas with a higher percentage of low-class individuals which I believe would give a clearer picture of the child abuse issue. Finally, the researcher has utilized fewer sources of past research materials in the literature review which might limit his capacity to gather adequate details regarding the past arguments in the area.

Conclusion and future directions

The government official from the department of children writes you should establish community-based education to create child abuse awareness in areas with high child abuse cases. The education program will enable individuals to have the courage to report people who abuse a child to the relevant authorities. Parents should be actively involved in setting policies that guarantee child protection. It is critical to impose high penalties, fines, and jail terms for individuals violating children’s rights. Child trauma is likely to affect a child even in their adult age. We must protect children from all forms of abuse to create a better society in the future. The researchers should consider focusing on the factors that contribute to child abuse such as cultural beliefs and practices and consider going beyond the boundaries of the united states of America and focus on the issues as a global challenge.

Appendix

Research questions

What is infant abuse?

Are there exceptional varieties of baby abuse?

What do I do if I suspect baby abuse/forget?

What if I am witnessing toddler abuse?

Who do I name?

What do child protection offerings do?

What takes place if child safety becomes involved with my own family?

References

Bartlett, J. D., Kotake, C., Fauth, R., & Easterbrooks, M. A. (2017). Intergenerational transmission of child abuse and neglect: Do maltreatment type, perpetrator, and substantiation status matter?. Child abuse & neglect, 63, 84-94.

Chen, Y., Chuang, C., & Chiu, Y. (2019). Community detection based on social interactions in a social network. Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology, 65(3), 539-550. https://doi.org/10.1002/asi.22986

Donnelly, E. (2021). Depression among users of social networking sites (SNSs): The role of SNS addiction and increased usage. Journal of Addiction and Preventive Medicine, 02(01). https://doi.org/10.19104/japm.2016.107

Mathews, B., Pacella, R., Dunne, M. P., Simunovic, M., & Marston, C. (2020). Improving measurement of child abuse and neglect: A systematic review and analysis of national prevalence studies. PLoS one, 15(1), e0227884.

Morin, A. (2019). How to Recognize If a Child Is Emotionally Abused. Retrieved 5 August 2019, from https://www.verywellfamily.com/what-is-emotional-child-abuse-4157502

Murray, L. K., Nguyen, A., & Cohen, J. A. (2014). Child sexual abuse. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics, 23(2), 321-337.

Nurse, A. M. (2021). Confronting child sexual abuse: Knowledge to action. University of Michigan Press.

Patterson, R. (2020). Child abuse: Implications for child development and psychopathology. Child Abuse & Neglect, 15(4), 602. https://doi.org/10.1016/0145-2134(91)90046-g

Ryan, M. M. (2021). The United States government internet directory 2021. Rowman & Littlefield.

Schneider, W., Waldfogel, J., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (2017). The Great Recession and risk for child abuse and neglect. Children and youth services review, 72, 71-81.

Smith, A. L., Cross, D., Winkler, J., Jovanovic, T., & Bradley, B. (2014). Emotional dysregulation and negative affect mediate the relationship between maternal history of child maltreatment and maternal child abuse potential. Journal of Family Violence, 29(5), 483- 494.

Sugaya, L., Hasin, D. S., Olfson, M., Lin, K. H., Grant, B. F., & Blanco, C. (2012). Child physical abuse and adult mental health: a national study. Journal of traumatic stress, 25(4), 384- 392.

Tener, D., Newman, A., Yates, P., & Tarshish, N. (2020). Child advocacy center intervention with sibling sexual abuse cases: Cross-cultural comparison of professionals’ perspectives and experiences. Child Abuse & Neglect, 105, 104259. doi:10.1016/j.chiabu.2019.104259

Yang, B. Z., Zhang, H., Ge, W., Weder, N., Douglas-Palumberi, H., Perepletchikova, F., … & Kaufman, J. (2013). Child abuse and epigenetic mechanisms of disease risk. American journal of preventive medicine, 44(2), 101-107.