Social and Personality Development Ch 5 Discussion

Ch 5 Discussion

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Discuss the video “Emotional Development (Links to an external site.)”, addressing two of the bullet points below.

  • Do you believe that infants have emotions? If you agree, what kind of emotions do you feel Infants carry? Give examples of “expressions or emotions” that infants carry.
  • Do you feel that infants have the cognitive ability to have emotions? Do infants have the capability to express  their needs without having true emotions?
  • The video and the text describe two fears that children have during development, stranger anxiety and separation anxiety. Can you recall ever experiencing these behaviors or have witnessed a child that demonstrates these behaviors? Why do you think some children demonstrate these behaviors more than others?

What you think about the psychologist’s advice in general and in regards to tantrums? If you are a parent, how do you deal with your child’s tantrums? If not, how did your parents deal with your tantrums?

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As mentioned in the video I also believe that infants have emotions, this can be seen when they cry and smile in the video. The infants have emotions this can also be seen when they are taken from the whom the infants are crying this not only indicates they have emotions but they might have no idea why they were taken out from where they were living which is most likely the reason why they would cry. Infants carry very instinctually basic emotions very on in their life and they later develop into being more complex emotions. Instinct emotions are emotions that we not necessarily learn and are essential to our human survival. Early on infants exhibit frequent crying since it they’re the main mode of communicating needs. Infants don’t necessarily have the cognitive ability to have robust emotions. However basic emotions are present in all infants and this they use as a basic form of expressing their needs. Infants do not have the capability to express their needs without having to show true emotions until they reach the toddler stage or ages 2-3 this requires more complex cognitive abilities that may not yet be developed in an infant. The psychologist in the video talked about ways that tantrums should be dealt with and I agree with her methods. The first advice was either to keep the child close or keep distance from them depending on the child. The second piece of advice the psychologist talked about was to not argue with the child or even punish them just simply ignore them while the tantrum occurred. The third last advice was to make sure that the caregiver at the end of the tantrum would not provide the object or thing that caused the tantrum. I am not a parent but, if I was I would use the advice given by the psychologist in the occurrences of tantrums.

 

 

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To say that infants don’t have emotions would be ridiculous. As the video and book mentioned, infants due experience emotions. The way infants express these emotions is through crying and smiling. The powerpoint mentioned that infants cry when they are bored, and being bored is an emotion that is relatable in every human being. Infants also cry when they demand to be held, coddled, and fed by their caregiver. Wanting those actions to be done to them can be considered, desire, and desire is known to be an emotion. I believe infants have the cognitive ability to produce emotions. However, due to their speech impairment, it makes it a bit more difficult for infants to process their emotions. Not having that ability encourages  the idea of infants being incapable of feeling emotions. I can’t recall experiencing or demonstrating stranger/separation anxiety as a toddler. My nephews and nieces however did demonstrate both types of anxiety. Most of them, when they were toddlers, would start to cry as soon as they saw mainly the mom walk out of the room. It took them a while to adjust to being in a room without their mom present. Most of the time, they needed to be distracted, in order to avoid seeing their mom walk away. I think some kids experience these anxieties more than others due to environmental factors, both emotionally and physically. If the child is receiving constant attention, constant reaction from their caregiver, the minute the parent stops, this creates in the child a sense of doubt and fear. Which causes the crying. I agree with the advice the psychologist has stated. Despite understanding the frustration of both parent and child. Yelling is not and should never be the solution. I’m not a parent but during my wait time in FLL airport I overheard a conversation between a mom and son. The son was having a tantrum episode and the mom told the son, “I don’t understand this, speak to me with words, communicate what you feel and why,” soon enough the tantrum lowered down and the son was able to tell his mom what was bothering him. I found this to be spectacular and agree that this is the way and solution to any type of tantrum a child might impose.

Reference:

https://online.fiu.edu/videos/?vpvid=45846868-1c66-4162-a94a-0cd95f234502 (Links to an external site.)

Parke, R. D., Roisman, G. I., & Rose, A. J. (2019). Social development. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

 

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Emotional development takes place in the early stages of life. Babies express their feelings and emotional state through crying and smiling. However, it is extremely important the way the caregiver interprets and satisfies the baby’s actions and needs. As stated in the video, emotional education is a key tool in helping children understand their feelings. As we saw in previous chapters and theories such as Bronfenbrenner’s theory, environmental experiences influence a child’s social and emotional development. A baby cries because he/she needs to be comforted but it is the caregiver’s action of carrying him/her that helps the baby interpret the outcome of his/her action(crying).  Between the ages of two to six months, infants display emotions such as anger, surprise, and sadness. Caregivers must have in mind that their emotional state can impact their relationship with the infant. As stated by Weissenburger, a child psychologist from the video, patient and good humor are extremely important to maintain a positive caregiver-infant relationship. By the age of six months, infants begin to express stranger anxiety. In this stage, they do not play or smile to everybody as they previously did. They start to exhibit discomfort when new people carry them. The video mentions that stranger anxiety is related to temperament. There are two types of babies, the slow to warm and the easy baby. The slow to warm babies need more time to get familiar with new situations or people while the easy babies depict more flexibility to new environments. However, stranger anxiety is a good sign. It tells about the discrimination ability the infant has developed and it is also evidence of intelligence. Children can also exhibit separation anxiety. In this case, it has to do with the type of attachment the child develops with his/her caregiver. I used to work in a childcare facility. While working there I was able to experience the two types of fears that I previously mentioned. I remember that when a new baby started in the baby room, he/she expent all day crying. The teacher tried, by all means, to calm down the new baby but it was an impossible mission. With the days the baby started to get familiar with the baby room teacher and the stranger anxiety and was no longer present.

I completely agree with the psychologist about how to approach the tantrums. Like she said if a child is experiencing a temper tantrum the best thing to do is give him/her space to liberate the negative feeling that the child is experiencing. I am a mother of two and I have to say that it is really hard to deal with temper tantrums. I have to maintain a balance between being firm and understanding at the same time, no an easy task, right? What do you think about parents?

References:

Parke, R. D., Roisman, G. I., & Rose, A. J. (2019). Social development. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

https://online.fiu.edu/videos/?vpvid=45846868-1c66-4162-a94a-0cd95f234502

 

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Do infants have emotions?

To first answer this question, we might need to understand what the word “emotions” encapsulates.

Emotion: “A conscious mental reaction (such as anger or fear) subjectively experienced as strong feeling usually directed toward a specific object and typically accompanied by physiological and behavioral changes in the body” (Webster, 1963). In simple words, emotion is a natural intuitive mindset, inferring from a mood, circumstance, or relationship with others.

We hear in the video that at an early age, babies cry when they feel in distress when they feel fear. A baby cries because he wants to be held, so when he sees the caregiver’s face, he smiles because he feels secure. “These emotions are directly related to the events that caused them. Fear is a direct response to a visible threat; distress is a direct result of pain, and joy often results from interacting with a primary caregiver”. (Parke, Roisman, & Rose, 2019) After this brief analysis, we can say that infants have emotions. If we believe that an infant does not have emotions is because we believe that they do not have feelings. Can any person say that infants do not have feelings? Emotions are how we express feelings. Infants learn from the environment; besides thinking, language, and cognitive ability, infants learn emotional and social tasks.

Cognition is the mental ability to process information while we are awake, is the action of understanding the world and acting accordingly. By this definition, we can think that an infant does not have the cognitive ability because he does not understand the world. However, if we look closely, we will recognize that an infant receives information, like the smell of the caregiver, the sound of her voice, even the caregiver’s heartbeats, and then he processes that information. He understands that “that thing” (person or caregiver) that carries all those characteristics (smell, voice, etc.) is the “thing” he can trust, is the “thing” is going to feed him,

and bath him and hold him. So, did the infant process information or not? Does he understand his world or not? Of course, an infant has cognitive abilities; however, they are not well developed, but they are present, and they will get better as the infants grow and learn through the interaction with the caregiver, close relatives others. The newborn’s emotions may be limited to hunger, distress, and fear, but they are still emotions, and they are capable of expressing their need by crying. Crying is nothing more than an expression of an emotional state.

I believe that the psychologist is on point regarding tantrum behaviors. Caregivers need to understand that children under two years have tantrums that are, in most cases, typical for this age. Nevertheless, the caregiver needs to be firm in these cases, because babies can learn how to use these tantrums behaviors to obtain what they want. Caregivers also need to be able to observe and discern whether a child’s condition induces the tantrums.

I have three children. They are now young men. One of my sons used to hit his head, looking for something hard to injure himself because he was frustrated he could not remember words. I would bath him and put him in the bed, not let him watch TV or play. It was hard, but by taking everything away from him, he would think twice before he hurt himself. Also, once he was calmed, I would lie with him in his bed and talk to him. He was only two years old, but children understand when you talk to them. Later on, when he was able to talk, he changed letters and forget things easily. Teachers used to tell me he was like that because I spoke Spanish to him, and he was confused.

However, I knew there was something else. Furthermore, I persevered I looked for professional help and took my son to endless doctor’s appointments, and it was something else. My son had short term memory loss. Throughout his childhood, he was trained to remember. Today he holds two bachelor’s, Physics and Philosophy. He currently works as an RBT, and he is looking to go back to school to obtain his master’s.

By been firm, not only in my children’s education but also in my beliefs, I was able to help my children to become the wonderful young men they are today. So yes, I agree with the psychologist.

 

References:

Webster, N. (1963). New collegiate dictionary. A Merriam-Webster. G. & C. Merriam.

Parke D., Roisman, G. I., & Rose, A. J. (2019). Social development. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.

Without a doubt, I strongly believe that infants do have emotions. Without emotions, an infant would not be able to express their sadness, happiness, or anger. Between the ages 2 and 6 months, an infant will begin to express how they feel. From the behaviors witnessed in the video and depending on the developmental stage of infants I can see that babies show contentment, fear, and anger.  Additionally, an infant displaying emotion can show the caregiver that the infant is in pain, has some type of discomfort, or is hungry. Some of the expressions or emotions that infants carry can be seen through their facial expressions.  When an infant smiles it, is an indication to the caregiver that the baby is feeling joy and is very comfortable. On another note, when a baby fuzzes it expresses that something is currently wrong with the baby.

Around 8 years ago, I use to babysit for a family that had a little boy. I started babysitting the little boy once he turned 2 years old. I remember meeting the little boy a couple of times along with the mother before I started babysitting him on my own. The first time I stayed with the child on my own he cried non-stop. I remember trying to do so many things to make him happy, but none would work. I now know that the child was experiencing separation and stranger anxiety. I believe the reason behind to why the child demonstrated this behavior was due to the insecure attachment he had with his mom.  Some children demonstrate stranger and separation anxiety more than others as some children have more of a secure attachment. In addition, depending on the parenting of the mother the child could become more secure or insecure. It is also important that a child can distinguish between stranger and familiar faces, as it is a sign of intelligence.

The psychologist advice in regards to tantrums is that it is important for caregivers to know that tantrums are normal depending on the age. Dealing with tantrums the caregiver also needs to understand that the child is very angry and the caregiver needs to show the child that everything will be okay. Additionally, another advice is to maintain distance from the child so the caregiver will not get hurt, do not argue with the child, and do not punish nor reward the child. This advice will definitely help me once I become a parent. I will understand my child when they are not happy, but I will also not reward any type of misbehavior. I remember that as a child my parents ignored all my tantrums. Also, if my tantrums kept going my parents would warned me that if I did not stop then I would be punished. Many times, out of anger, I would not stop and my tantrum would get worst and worst.

 

Université de Genève. (2018, April 11). Babies make the link between emotions expressed vocally and facially. ScienceDaily. Retrieved February 11, 2020 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2018/04/180411145122.htm

 

Parke, R. D., Roisman, G. I., & Rose, A. J. (2019). Social development. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

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I do believe infants have emotions. I believe they feel security, safety, comfort and fear. Babies who laugh, smile around certain people are demonstrating they are comfortable and feel safe around that person. When a child is picked up or held by someone and then they cry, I believe is showing fear of the person. It could be something as simple not knowing the person, or not trusting the person. However, I do not think infants actually understand what these feelings are, I believe they are just overcome by what they are feeling and then the expressions naturally come.

I have two nieces and they could not be more opposite. My oldest niece Bailey had major separation anxiety and would cry when her mom left the room. As she got older, she did get better and started to understand that her mom would be coming back. She did not like strangers holding her. If I went more than a few weeks of not seeing her, she would cry when I held her. Whereas her younger sister Bell was polar opposite. She did not care who held her or gave her attention. I think this comes back to personality traits. Bailey is very timid and shy and takes a while to warm up to people and she ten now. Bell is super social and would make a brick wall talk back if she could.

I am not a parent but I remember as a kid, tantrums where not an option. My siblings and I would be spanked, grounded or have things taken away from us. We learned very quickly that behavior would not be tolerated. I do believe that psychologist was right but saying each child is different. She said that temper tantrum shows the child is frustrated and they are not sure how to deal with those feelings.  I do believe you need to figure out what is the best thing for you child, whether they need to be held or just finish the temper tantrum and let their frustrations out. Maintaining your composure is important.

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After viewing the video “Emotional Development”, I have chose to discuss the first bullet point to begin. I do believe that infants have emotions because they will begin showing their emotions in their expressions. This would be for example, being concerned would be them staring hard at something, crying or whining when in pain or distress, or an alerted face if they are concerned or startled. I also chose to discuss the third bullet point because I have seen infants depict stranger anxiety and separation anxiety. Stranger and separation anxiety show that the child is developing intelligence and does indeed know their caregivers and the emotions that come with those caregivers. When I was a nanny I definitely experienced this, because I started with a newborn a week after they were born, however since I was there very closely caring for him shortly after birth, he didn’t show as much anxiety as his slightly older brother did with me however, they both cried a lot when their mom would leave showing that separation anxiety. Although, it didn’t last long, it still displayed their anxiety. I think some kids experience it more than others based on how they are raised and the emotions and secure attachments they develop.

I think the psychologist’s advice on dealing with tantrums was very helpful. I think it is important to understand children’s feelings when dealing with a tantrum, however I have not had good experiences with this. Although the example I was apart of for a long time was the child constantly throwing tantrums over everything simply because they began to realize their parent would only express that they understand but there was no discipline for the bad behavior and the child was still always rewarded what they threw the tantrum for in the beginning. However I was the nanny at the time and quickly began to realize that the child only acted like that with the parent. I did not tolerate the manipulation from the toddler and their tantrums. I explained I understood their feelings, helped them through the issue and gave them an alternate option. The child was also punished in my care for his extreme behavior which he then only acted out in his parents care. When I was a child, my parents understood and talked things out with me as well as physical punishment and time out.

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After reading the chapter from the textbook and watching the video, I honestly do believe that infants have and can express emotions. The textbook says that infants can experience joy, fear, distress, anger, surprise, sadness, interest, and disgust. Babies can express these emotions through crying, smiling, laughing, frowning, body movements, or vocalization. When a baby is feeling happy or joyful, they will smile, babble or gurgle, laugh. If a baby is sad, they tend to express this by crying. When a baby is feeling disgusted or distressed, they tend to frown. As the infant grows and learns more about emotions from their caregiver, they are able to express their emotions better.

I don’t believe that infants have the capability to express their needs and wants without showing their emotions. When a baby needs to be changed, fed, or just needs some comfort, they tend to cry for their caregiver. Without expressing their emotions, an infant would not be able to communicate their needs or wants to their caregiver.

After listening to the psychologist’s advice from the video, I can say that I agree with her advice on tantrums. Even though I’m not a parent, I can understand how helpful this advice can be. I’ve babysat plenty of times and have seen lots of tantrums from kids. I’ve noticed that when a parent yells at a child that is having a tantrum, things usually get worse. I think that giving the child some space is some great advice that I’ll probably use once I’m a parent.

https://online.fiu.edu/videos/?vpvid=45846868-1c66-4162-a94a-0cd95f234502 (Links to an external site.)

Parke, R. D., Roisman, G. I., & Rose, A. J. (2019). Social development. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

 

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In the video “Emotional Development of Children, ” the video talks about how important emotional development is for newborns, infants ,and children. Physical and intellectual growth happens in infancy, but emotional growth is just as important. Emotional growth helps kids know what they are feeling. A baby’s temperament can influence the way the baby interacts with a parent or guardian as well as the activities. An intense baby most likely will only pay attention for a short period of time, while a quiet, watchful baby will be content for longer periods of time. In order to establish a relationship with a baby, the parent, guardian, or caregiver must be patient and aware of their own emotions when dealing with a baby. Babies can also give cues as to what they need. Babies need to be comforted, they need to be warm, and they also need to feel secure as well as fed. If a baby is crying they usually need something like to be held, fed, or changed. Babies need to feel support in order for the baby to develop their own emotions. I believe infants do have emotions. They smile, showing that they feel joy or comfort. They cry when they have a sense of need. They can show intense concern by starring intensely at their own hands and finger movements. Babies can laugh and experience joy. Babies can also experience stranger anxiety, and act unfriendly toward others. Some people who the baby has met before can now be greeted with hesitation and fear. The caregiver can help by reassurance, being held, and by not thrusting the child into unfamiliar environments or to unfamiliar people. However, if a baby develops stranger anxiety between 5 and 6 months it is a good sign because that means the baby can discriminate between familiar and unfamiliar and it shows a sign of intelligence. Separation anxiety occurs when the baby cries when left by the caregiver.

The video describes two fears that children have, separation anxiety, and stranger anxiety. I can recall having separation anxiety a lot as a child. When I was around three years old my family and I moved from Berlin, Germany to South Florida. I was in a totally new place, I was sent to a new school at the age of four, I did not know any English and I just remember screaming for my mom when she left me. I was scared of this new place, and new people, and all of a sudden, I couldn’t communicate anymore. Some children may demonstrate these behaviors more than others because some kids are easier going than others. Some kids feel more safe in an environment than others. Or, some kids may have gone through big changes and everything may feel so unfamiliar.

The advice the psychologist gives, when talking about tantrums is very true. I have worked in a preschool and many kids throw tantrums, some for good reason, and others for no reason at all. The advice about distracting the child with an activity actually does work very well, especially if the tantrum is for no reason because it allows the child to forget about the tantrum. Usually talking to the child and asking why they feel a certain way also helps. Over all, her advice was true.

 

Bilmes, J. (n.d.). Beyond Behavior Management, Second Edition: The Six Life Skills Children Need. Retrieved February 12, 2020, from https://www.redleafpress.org/Beyond-Behavior-Management-Second-Edition-The-Six-Life-Skills-Children-Need-P530.aspx?gclid=EAIaIQobChMIu_fYierM5wIV9f7jBx3joQ6aEAAYASAAEgIUnPD_BwE (Links to an external site.)

(n.d.). Retrieved February 12, 2020, from https://online.fiu.edu/videos/?vpvid=45846868-1c66-4162-a94a-0cd95f234502

 

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According to the chapter readings and the video presented for this module, emotional expression is one of the first forms of communication, occurring since infancy. The textbook defines emotions as a subjective reaction to something in the environment, which is generally accompanied by some form of physiological arousal. There are two types of emotions, primary and secondary emotions. Primary emotions are classified as fear, joy, disgust, sorrow, interest, and surprise. While, secondary emotions are classified as pride, shame, guilt, empathy, embarrassment, and jealousy. Secondary emotions require a deeper sense of self and awareness of others; therefore, these types of emotions do not emerge until about the age of two. On the contrary, primary emotions do not require introspection and from early on in life babies will begin to show these emotions. I do believe in this research because I have witnessed babies express themselves through these simple feelings to communicate. In my extended family, I have been able to experience the emotional development of two babies. One of them is still currently in the infancy period, being that she is 8 months old. I find it very amusing to watch her try new foods and see her expression to the different foods she is trying. It’s very obvious which foods she does and does not like according to her reactions to the food. She once ate a piece of carrot and she made the most disgusted face while spitting up the carrot. She also becomes extremely happy to see her dad or mom come home from work. These emotions she exhibits may not be well developed, but they are a window into her feelings and opinions.
The video also discusses two common fears infants have, separation anxiety and stranger anxiety. From my experiences with both babies in my extended family, I believe a child’s personality and temperament play large roles in how adaptable an infant is in new situations or environments. For instance, my younger male cousin has always been very social. He enjoys the company of other people and never had a problem with strangers carrying him, even when his mom or dad was not around. Meanwhile, my 8-month-old baby cousin seems distressed around a large group of people she does not know. Her personality matches this stranger anxiety because she is much more reserved with her emotions.

 

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