(The blue is the dissection question and the words in black are

(The blue is the dissection question and the words in black are things from the book that I thought would be helpful, but of course you can go the Chapter 11 in the book and pick what you like instead. There are two parts to the essay, part 1 and part 2 “is all the way at the bottom” they both need to fit into one page or two. Please put par1 one and part 2 to your answers so I know the different. )

PART 1: What was the most useful information you learned regarding organizational change (chapter 11) and how will you specifically apply this information to your workplace? Be specific in your description (proper terminology) of what you learned and, to earn full credit, do not simply repeat what is in the text. I want a sincere reflection and integration of what you have learned

Strong and Weak Cultures

Organizational cultural strength is characterized by a continuum from strong to weak. Organizations with clear values that are shared to the extent of similar behavior have strong cultures. In strong cultures norms are used to enforcing desired behavior. 82

Organizations that have no stated values and do not enforce behavior have weak cultures. So the more alike the values and behavior, the stronger the culture, and vice versa. Whole Foods, Southwest Airlines, and Starbucks are recognized as having a strong culture. “IBMers value: (1) dedication to every client’s success; (2) innovation that matters, for our company and for the world; and (3) trust and personal responsibility in all relationships. There is a sense of pride and of being able to distinguish yourself as an IBMer.”

Positive and Negative Cultures

An organizational culture is considered positive or healthy when it has norms that contribute to effective performance and productivity. A negative or unhealthy organizational culture is a source of resistance and turmoil that hinders effective performance. Zillow CEO Spencer Rascoff says that a positive work culture can drive business success. 84

The most effective organizational culture that leads to effective performance is strong and positive. Companies with strong positive cultures include Apple, Google, J&J, P&G, and 3M. Although IBM has a strong culture, its CEO Virginia Rometty is changing one aspect. She wants IBMers to think fast and move faster with innovations.8 85

Negative unhealthy cultures can be costly. Because cultures are so deeply entrenched and assumptions are not questioned, it is difficult to change a negative culture, but it has to be done. It typically starts by replacing top executives with new leaders who are charged to change the negative culture. Uber fired cofounder and CEO Travis Kalanick and charged four of Uber’s most prominent female officials to make sweeping changes to the culture. 87

The WeWork (case Chapter 7) culture of an extreme disrupter culture was a major cause of the decline in value and the replacement of 88 cofounder Adam Neumann Nike CEO Mark Parker resigned under negative publicity for its negative culture that excluded some staff and failed to take seriously complaints about workplace issues.”

Managing and Changing Culture and Climate through OD

The first step in organizational development is to diagnose the problem(s). Indicators that problems exist, such as conflicts between diverse groups, the need for increased quality and productivity, low profits, and excessive absenteeism or turnover, lead management to call in a change agent to study the organization’s problems and needs.” 96

A change agent is the person responsible for the OD program. The change agent can use a variety of methods to diagnose problems. Some methods are reviewing records, observing, interviewing individuals and work groups, holding meetings, and/or using questionnaires. After the problem has been diagnosed, OD techniques are used to solve it, as managers navigate the change.” This section 97 examines five OD techniques. Training and development is presented first because the other four techniques usually include training.

Training and Development

Learning can increase performance.98 So after a position is staffed, there is usually a need to train the person to do the job. Training is the process of developing the necessary skills to perform the present job. Development is the process of developing the ability to perform both present and future jobs. Typically, training is used to develop technical skills of nonmanagers, while development is usually less technical and is designed for professional and managerial employees. The terms training and development are often used together; they are used interchangeably as well.

Performance Appraisal

After employees are hired, and during and after their training, they must be evaluated so that you and they know how they are performing. Perfor performance. Performance appraisal is also called performance job evaluation, performance review, and performance audit. Regardless of the name, performance appraisal is one of the manager’s most important, and most difficult, functions.

Performance appraisals have two sets of objectives: (1) developmental and (2) evaluative. Developmental objectives are used as the basis of 99 decisions to improve future performance.” Evaluative objectives are used as the basis of administrative decisions to reward or punish past performance.

Developing Standards and measurement methods

After you determine what it takes to do the job, you should develop standards and methods for measuring performance. This is step (2) in the performance appraisal process. Poor standards are a major problem of performance appraisals.

To effectively assess performance, you need to have clear standards and methods to objectively measure performance. 100 The term standards describes performance levels in the areas of quantity, quality, time, and cost Sample standards for an administrative assistant could be to type 50 words (quantity) per minute (time) with two errors or less (quality) at a maximum salary of $20 per hour (cost).

Conducting Informal Performance Appraisals- Coaching

Performance appraisals should not merely be formal once-a-year, one- hour sessions. Employees need regular informal feedback on their performance-coaching. The employee who is performing below standard may need daily or weekly coaching to reach increased productivity.

The coaching model is designed for use in improving ability and for dealing with motivation problems, as motivated employees are more productive and get better performance appraisals, because coaching increases performance.

Survey Feedback

Survey feedback is often used as a large group intervention for change. 102 Companies want to know how their employees and customers feel about them, and they agree they should conduct surveys more than 103 once a year. Companies including Google are conducting shorter frequent surveys to catch problems before they fester. 104 Survey feedback is an OD technique that uses a questionnaire to gather data that are used as the basis for change.

Measuring Climate

The survey feedback technique is commonly used to measure the organizational climate, or morale, which is a measure of job satisfaction, 105 Based on the results, the organization may use OD techniques to improve. Some of the signs that an organization may have a climate problem include high rates of tardiness, absenteeism, and turnover. When employees have many complaints, talk about unionization or striking, and lack pride in their work, the organization may have a climate problem that should be corrected.

Organizational climate is measured in the same way job satisfaction is (review Chapter 3). Survey feedback is the most common approach. But the dimensions included in the questionnaire vary from organization to organization.

Force Field Analysis

Force field analysis is a technique that diagrams the current level of performance, the hindering forces against change, and the driving forces toward change. The process begins by appraising the current level of performance. As shown in Exhibit 11.9, the present level of performance is shown in the middle of the diagram. The hindering forces holding back performance are listed in the top part of the diagram. The driving forces keeping performance at this level are listed on the bottom of the diagram.

After viewing the diagram, you develop strategies for maintaining or increasing the driving forces with simultaneous steps for decreasing hindering forces. For example, in Exhibit 11.9, the solution you select could be to have the salespeople go through a training program. You could spend more time working with the less productive salespeople. Speeding up delivery time could be worked on, while maintaining all the driving forces could lead to higher sales volume.

Team Building

Team building is a widely used OD technique. Team building is an OD technique designed to help work groups operate more effectively. Team building is used as a means of helping new or existing groups that are in need of improving effectiveness.

Team-Building Goals

The goals of team-building programs will vary considerably, depending on the group needs and the change agent’s skills. Some of the typical goals are:

To clarify the objectives of the team and the responsibilities of each team member.

To identify problems preventing the team from accomplishing its objectives.

To develop open, honest working relationships based on trust and an understanding of group members.

To improve team process (team dynamics) (Chapter 9). The team explores and selects ideal norms.

PART 2: Based upon what you have learned so far in this class, answer the following THREE questions:

Utilizing appropriate terminology, what specifically did you learn about dealing with problem team members?

How can you realistically apply this information to become a better team member?

How can you realistically apply the information regarding team dynamics in working with others on your team?

FOR YOUR INITIAL POST: I need you to number your responses (e.g., 1. In dealing with problem team members, I now know… 2. I can specifically apply this information by… 3. In working with others, I can now… ).

( Again here in the bottom in black are texts from the book that would be helpful)

Team Building

Team building is a widely used OD technique. Team building is an OD technique designed to help work groups operate more effectively. Team building is used as a means of helping new or existing groups that are in need of improving effectiveness.

Team-Building Goals

The goals of team-building programs will vary considerably, depending on the group needs and the change agent’s skills. Some of the typical goals are:

To clarify the objectives of the team and the responsibilities of each team member.

To identify problems preventing the team from accomplishing its objectives.

To develop open, honest working relationships based on trust and an understanding of group members.

To improve team process (team dynamics) (Chapter 9). The team explores and selects ideal norms.

Task and People Change

Task refers to the day-to-day routines of things that employees do to perform their jobs. Organizations can’t change without changes in people by adopting new behaviors to break old task routines. When tasks change with new products, people’s skills must change.

Recall the importance of friends and workplace relationships, and that they are a continual changing work in progress that affects both team and organizational performance. Team dynamics often change over time through the development stages of the group (Chapter 10). A change in team membership and in organizational culture is also considered a people change.

It is people who create technology, develop structures, and make products through tasks. Therefore, people are the most important resource. Changing any of these other variables will not be effective without effective people changes, and it takes good leadership to implement change.