Corporate social responsibilityis a concept that insists on expanded social stewardship by organizations. The concept of corporate social responsibility suggests that apart from their customary obligations to stockholders, organizations should embrace their responsibilities towards a wider group of stakeholder including employees, customers, and the larger community corporate social responsibility activities may include charitable activities through community programs, initiating projects focused on environmental sustainability, and efforts focuses on developing diverse and safer workplaces
Oil and gas multinational have been active in leadership roles in developing code of conduct in the work place, good corporate practices, and engagement at various levels of society.This is demonstrated by the involvements of companies such as Shell, Exxon Mobile, Occidental, and Chevron Texaco in initiatives such as United Nations’ Global Compact, Dow Jones Sustainability Index, the Millennium Development Goals, and the Voluntary Principles on Security and Human Rights
Despite of these achievements and their contributions to the larger society, oil and gas companies have been the target of numerous negative or anti-corporate campaigns over the past two decades. Among the groups involved in the damaging campaigns against oil and gas companies include many civil society organization and activists such as environmentalists, human rights activists, and academics. These groups have employed various strategies against these companies and institutions collaborating with them. Some of these strategies include exposure, blockades, public hearings, seizures, and closures. These campaigns have focus on various issues such as health, environment, corruption, safety, human right abuses, and climate change
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