In ancient Egypt, there were five parts for the soul; Ren who was given to a person at birth, Sheut was given to a person’s shadow as they believed the shadow contained components that were the essence of the individual, lb was the heart of the metaphysics of the person responsible for things like intention, emotions, and thoughts (Asaad, 2015). Ba was the notion of personality or everything that made a person unique, and lastly, Ka, which was a vital fire or a spark which distinguished living and the dead or warm vs. cold. Ka was a statue that was intended to give the deceased person’s ka, or the spirit, a resting place. Ba represented the living aspect of a person (Asaad, 2015).
On the other side, reincarnation in Buddhism is also referred to as the rebirth doctrine asserts the notion that rebirth does not take place as another person or human being but in one of the six realms or Gatti also called Bhavachakra (McClelland, 2018). The Buddhists believe in the cycle of life and death and rebirth called samsara. Through Karma, the Buddhists believers hope to escape the cycle, samsara, and attain or achieve nirvana or the end to all suffering.
Buddhists believe that samsara is determined by karma or actions in a person’s life. These actions are driven by intentions, which are deeds done deliberately through someone’s speech, body, or mind and leads to consequences in the future. As such, one does karma by way of intellect, address, and body (Allen, 2015). The teachings of religion urge people to cultivate good karma and avoid bad ones as they will have lasting consequences in ones’ life and also the afterlife. Some of the actions that might lead to bad karma may include having sex before marriage, other sexual misconduct, and accrues terrible karma, which lasts forever.
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Allen, P. M. E. J. A. &. M. W., 2015. Does karma exist?: Buddhism, social cognition, and the evidence for karma. The International Journal for the Psychology of Religion, 25(1), pp. 1-17.
Asaad, T., 2015. Sleep in Ancient Egypt. In Sleep medicine, pp. 13-19.
McClelland, N. C., 2018. Encyclopedia of reincarnation and karma. s.l.:McFarland.