Florida International University – EAB 3002

 

  • Question 1

1 out of 1 points

_____ is(are) the evolutionary history of a species.
  • Question 2

1 out of 1 points

At what level does selection by consequence occur?
  • Question 3

1 out of 1 points

In terms of selection, operants are selected by ______ and cultural practices are selected by ______.
  • Question 4

1 out of 1 points

Scheller and Axel (1984) found biological evidence that:
  • Question 5

1 out of 1 points

 

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Pierce and colleagues proposed that the obese-prone genotype may confer an evolutionary advantage:
  • Question 6

1 out of 1 points

The ability to have one’s behavior strengthened by reinforcement is ______.
  • Question 7

1 out of 1 points

What are the two major sources of heritable genetic variation?
  • Question 8

1 out of 1 points

The single common principle operating at the level of biology, behavior, and culture is ________.
  • Question 9

1 out of 1 points

If a population is subjected to extreme temperatures and as a consequence the next generation is more weather resistant, _____ has occurred.
  • Question 10

1 out of 1 points

Pierce (1991) described the power of a _____ in a troop of baboons that were taught to avoid a more appetizing banana in favor of a less appetizing chow.
  • Question 1

1 out of 1 points

Which of the four guiding principles of the precision teaching captures the idea that if slow learning is observed, the program of instruction needs to be changed?
Selected Answer: 

The learner knows best

Answers:Focus directly on observable behavior
Rate as the basic behavioral measure
Charting of behavior on a Standard Celeration Chart
 

The learner knows best

  • Question 2

1 out of 1 points

Behavior trapping occurs when ______.
Selected Answer: 

behavior maintenance continues because the new behavior is reinforced by natural contingencies of reinforcement

Answers: 

behavior maintenance continues because the new behavior is reinforced by natural contingencies of reinforcement

an analyst presents the opportunity to replicate a previously extinguished behavior
a behavior has been generalized to other stimuli that will elicit the same response
contingencies of reinforcement encourage negative behaviors
  • Question 3

1 out of 1 points

Behavioral interventions are directed at:
Selected Answer: 

changing environmental events to improve behavior

Answers: 

changing environmental events to improve behavior

identifying problem behaviors to better understand the emotional negativity they create
improving behavior by changing negative cognitions
engaging in behaviors to reduce anxiety and negativity
  • Question 4

1 out of 1 points

Applied behavior analysis is a field of study that focuses on the application of the ____, methods, and procedures of the science of behavior.
Selected Answer: 

principles

Answers:equations
findings
 

principles

research
  • Question 5

1 out of 1 points

Which of the following is not a typical component of a course built around Keller’s personalized system of instruction (PSI)?
Selected Answer: 

Graphing and revising the program based on the data

Answers:Participants move at their own pace
Lectures/demonstrations are attended as needed by the participant
 

Graphing and revising the program based on the data

Breaking and reading assignments/activities into small components
  • Question 6

1 out of 1 points

Level 1 of the ABC school program for autistic children involves:
Selected Answer: 

discrete trials of stimulus, response, and reinforcement

Answers:teaching of stimulus generalization to those who are advanced
training and generalization of social skills, especially with parents
 

discrete trials of stimulus, response, and reinforcement

teaching of “splinter skills” to able students
  • Question 7

0 out of 1 points

Fred Keller wrote a seminal article on college teaching called ______.
Selected Answer: 

farewell to college education

Answers: 

good-bye teacher

Keller on teaching
farewell to college education
so long to higher education
  • Question 8

1 out of 1 points

When a reinforcement procedure is applied progressively to different participants with similar target behavior the researcher is employing a _____ design.
Selected Answer: 

multiple baseline across subjects

Answers:multiple baseline across reinforcement
multiple baseline across behaviors
multiple baseline across settings
 

multiple baseline across subjects

  • Question 9

1 out of 1 points

When recording behavior, behavior analysts strive for greater than ____ agreement between multiple independent observers.
Selected Answer: 

80%

Answers:60%
70%
 

80%

90%
  • Question 10

0 out of 1 points

When a reinforcement procedure is applied in one situation but is withheld in another situation the researcher is employing a ______ design.
Selected Answer: 

multiple baseline across subjects

Answers:multiple baseline across reinforcement
multiple baseline across behaviors
 

multiple baseline across settings

multiple baseline across subjects
  • Question 1

0 out of 1 points

The unit of selection at the behavioral level is the _______.
  • Question 2

1 out of 1 points

When organisms were faced with unpredictable and changing environments, natural selection favored _______ _______ – that is, adjusting one’s behavior on the basis of past experience “…”.
  • Question 3

1 out of 1 points

If few (or no) response variations are reinforced, the operant decreases and the process is _______.
  • Question 4

1 out of 1 points

A culture is said to evolve when the _______________ adopts these innovations.
  • Question 5

1 out of 1 points

From a behavioral viewpoint, natural selection involves _________ ___ __________ “…”. The habitat or environment inadvertently sets requirements for survival of individuals.
  • Question 6

1 out of 1 points

Skinner explained the ____________ of human gestures in terms of selection by consequences and susceptibility to aversive stimulation.
  • Question 7

1 out of 1 points

At the level of behavior “…”, ________ __ _________ is described by the principle of reinforcement – the selection of operant behavior by the effects that it produces.
  • Question 8

1 out of 1 points

From a behavioral view, wide variation in spontaneous speech sounds allows for ___________ of vocal operants by reinforcement supplied by listeners.
  • Question 9

1 out of 1 points

Many organisms evolved genetic programs that __________ for operant processes.
  • Question 10

1 out of 1 points

The pattern of behavior that arises from the _____________ contingencies is the type of practice (e.g., what people do in that culture).
  • Question 1

1 out of 1 points

Following a baseline period of assessment, a _______ _______ of action may be negotiated between the behavior therapist, the client, and concerned others “…”.
  • Question 2

1 out of 1 points

Most behavior-change programs attempt to identify and alter significant variables that maintain _______ _______.
  • Question 3

1 out of 1 points

Once a suitable response has been defined, the next step is to _______ the behavior when it occurs.
  • Question 4

1 out of 1 points

_______ _______ _______ are neutral with respect to the form and frequency of behavior.
  • Question 5

1 out of 1 points

_______ _______ _______ involves two major areas of research which entail the application of operant and respondent principles to improve human behavior.
  • Question 6

1 out of 1 points

Interventions for these and other problems are directed at changing __________ events to improve behavior.
  • Question 7

1 out of 1 points

Applied behavior analysts who teach their clients skills that are reinforced by members of the social community are ________________ for behavior maintenance.
  • Question 8

1 out of 1 points

A similar logic is used when an intervention is progressively introduced to different _______________ who exhibit the similar target behavior.
  • Question 9

1 out of 1 points

Basically, PSI courses are ____________ such that students move through the course at their own pace.
  • Question 10

1 out of 1 points

In applied behavior analysis, self-control techniques may be taught to clients, whoa re then better able to ____________ their own behavior.
  • Question 1

1 out of 1 points

______ introduced the term verbal behavior to deal with the ______ of the speaker.
  • Question 2

1 out of 1 points

When reinforcement is based on matching of geometric forms to different line angles, the procedure is called ______.
  • Question 3

1 out of 1 points

Saying “this is a fat cat” to the spoken stimulus “this is a fat cat” is an example of a(n):
  • Question 4

1 out of 1 points

In terms of interlocking contingencies, a vertical arrow (downward) from the speaker’s operant chain to the listener’s indicates that:
  • Question 5

1 out of 1 points

When a verbal response depends on a verbal discriminative stimulus, the verbal relations are _____.
  • Question 6

1 out of 1 points

According to Skinner, ____ refers to getting what you want from others, and ____ refers to making contact or reference to things happening in the world.
  • Question 7

1 out of 1 points

Studies that find the emergence of equivalent stimulus functions without the use of reinforcement argue:
  • Question 8

1 out of 1 points

A child’s ability to say “cat” when shown a picture of a cat and to point to the picture of a cat when given the prompt “cat” demonstrates the equivalence relation of:
  • Question 9

1 out of 1 points

A response such as, “I have butterflies in my stomach,” can be analyzed as _____.
  • Question 10

1 out of 1 points

If the picture of a dog, the spoken word “dog,” and the written word dog all regulate the same behavior, we say that the stimulus classes are ______.
  • Question 1

0 out of 1 points

According to Skinner, ____ refers to getting what you want from others, and ____ refers to making contact or reference to things happening in the world.
  • Question 2

1 out of 1 points

Naming relations arise from verbal contingencies that integrate ____ and ____ response classes of the child as speaker with the conditional discrimination behavior of the child as listener.
  • Question 3

0 out of 1 points

The relationship between culture and contingencies of verbal behavior is:
  • Question 4

1 out of 1 points

In terms of interlocking contingencies, a vertical arrow (downward) from the speaker’s operant chain to the listener’s indicates that:
  • Question 5

0 out of 1 points

In the realm of communication, Skinner:
  • Question 6

1 out of 1 points

When reinforcement is based on matching of geometric forms to different line angles, the procedure is called ______.
  • Question 7

1 out of 1 points

Saying “this is a fat cat” to the spoken stimulus “this is a fat cat” is an example of a(n):
  • Question 8

1 out of 1 points

One kind of conditioned establishing operation (CEO) called the ______ CEO involves withholding an object or item necessary to complete a behavioral sequence.
  • Question 9

1 out of 1 points

When pecking the keys is based on line angle or form depending on the state of the house light (on/off), we can say that the pigeon shows ______.
  • Question 10

0 out of 1 points

Recent neurological studies of equivalence relations found evidence that transitive relations activate the ____, while symmetrical relations increase blood flow in the _____.
  • Question 1

1 out of 1 points

To train _______, the most direct procedure is to manipulate an EO and reinforce the verbal response with the specified consequence.
  • Question 2

1 out of 1 points

When stimulus class A is shown to be interchangeable with stimulus class B (if A=B then B=A), we may say that the organism shows _______ between the stimulus classes.
  • Question 3

1 out of 1 points

In contrast with the term language, _______ _______ deals with the performance of a speaker and the environmental conditions that establish and maintain such performance.
  • Question 4

1 out of 1 points

Everyday examples of _______ include asking someone for a glass of water when you are thirsty, or requesting directions from a stranger when you are lost.
  • Question 5

1 out of 1 points

_______ _______ requires that the verbal stimulus and the product of the response be in the same mode (auditory, visual, etc.) and have exact physical resemblance (e.g., same sound pattern).
  • Question 6

1 out of 1 points

An _______ is a class of verbal operants regulated by a verbal stimulus in which there is a correspondence and formal similarity between the stimulus and the response.
  • Question 7

1 out of 1 points

The _______ is a form of verbal behavior that modifies the consequences produced by other verbal responses. It is verbal behavior used in conjunction with, and controlled by, primary verbal units, such as mands, tacts, and intraverbals.
  • Question 8

1 out of 1 points

_______ is defined as a class of verbal operants whose form is regulated by nonverbal discriminative stimuli (nonverbal SD) and maintained by generalized conditioned reinforcement from the verbal community.
  • Question 9

1 out of 1 points

_______ _______ is a class of verbal operants regulated by verbal discriminative stimuli.
  • Question 10

1 out of 1 points

In _______ _______, the researcher presents a sample stimulus (e.g., a triangle) and two options (e.g., triangle or circle). The organism is reinforced for choosing the triangle option that corresponds to the triangle sample (i.e., matching to sample).
·  Question 1

1 out of 1 points

Epstein’s (1984) second experiment concerned _____ and showed that spontaneous imitation in pigeons occurred after ____ had elapsed.

·  Question 2

1 out of 1 points

Recent research on generalized imitation using infants less than 2 years old has, generally, found that:

·  Question 3

0 out of 1 points

The “memory function” involved in responding to the request of “please text me your roommate’s number” would be:

·  Question 4

1 out of 1 points

Demonstrating spontaneous imitation is _____ because _______.

·  Question 5

1 out of 1 points

Functionality, rules, instructions, advice, and laws are examples of:

·  Question 6

0 out of 1 points

Bandura’s social cognitive model of observational learning includes all of the following except:

·  Question 7

1 out of 1 points

As a response to challenges against the _____ model of imitation, Baer created the _____ approach.

·  Question 8

1 out of 1 points

To show the importance of ______ for Marilla’s ______ imitations, Don Baer changed the ____ of reinforcement.

·  Question 9

1 out of 1 points

In regards to self-generated rule compliance, Bandura believes:

·  Question 10

1 out of 1 points

Autistic children show a ______ mirror neuron system (MNS) which can help explain their ______.

 

  • Question 1

1 out of 1 points

Stanley Milgram’s famous study of _______ __ _______ illustrates the impact of orders and commands on human behavior.
  • Question 2

1 out of 1 points

The procedures of _______ _______ begin with simple reinforcement of correspondence or matching between the modeled performance and the imitative operant.
  • Question 3

0 out of 1 points

After viewing a model hitting, jumping on, and verbally insulting a Bobo doll, male and female children also showed these _______ aggressive responses.
  • Question 4

1 out of 1 points

Rules can act as _______ _______ _______, altering the function of other stimuli, and thereby the strength of relations among these stimuli and behavior “…”.
  • Question 5

1 out of 1 points

Innate or _______ _______, if real, is based on evolution and natural selection (a characteristic of the species) rather than experiences and contingencies during the lifetime of the individual.
  • Question 6

1 out of 1 points

When performance is attributed to direct exposure to reinforcement contingencies, behavior is said to be _______ _______.
  • Question 7

1 out of 1 points

_______ __ _______ involves doing what others do (imitating), in which the performance of an observer or learner is regulated by the actions of a model (correspondence).
  • Question 8

1 out of 1 points

The term _______ _______ _______ is used when the listener’s or (reader’s) performance is regulated by contingency-specifying stimuli.
  • Question 9

1 out of 1 points

_______ _______ seems to integrate imitation with rule-following behavior to produce behavior that is transmitted from one person to another and from one generation to the next.
  • Question 10

1 out of 1 points

Although modeling can produce a variety of effect (e.g., social facilitation, stimulus enhancement, and so on), _______ requires the learner to produce a novel response that could only occur by observing a model emit a similar response “…”.
  • Question 1

1 out of 1 points

When performance is attributed to direct exposure to reinforcement contingencies, behavior is said to be _______ _______.
  • Question 2

1 out of 1 points

Rules can act as _______ _______ _______, altering the function of other stimuli, and thereby the strength of relations among these stimuli and behavior “…”.
  • Question 3

1 out of 1 points

_______ _______ seems to integrate imitation with rule-following behavior to produce behavior that is transmitted from one person to another and from one generation to the next.
  • Question 4

1 out of 1 points

Innate or _______ _______, if real, is based on evolution and natural selection (a characteristic of the species) rather than experiences and contingencies during the lifetime of the individual.
  • Question 5

1 out of 1 points

Although modeling can produce a variety of effect (e.g., social facilitation, stimulus enhancement, and so on), _______ requires the learner to produce a novel response that could only occur by observing a model emit a similar response “…”.
  • Question 6

1 out of 1 points

Stanley Milgram’s famous study of _______ __ _______ illustrates the impact of orders and commands on human behavior.
  • Question 7

1 out of 1 points

The procedures of _______ _______ begin with simple reinforcement of correspondence or matching between the modeled performance and the imitative operant.
  • Question 8

0 out of 1 points

After viewing a model hitting, jumping on, and verbally insulting a Bobo doll, male and female children also showed these _______ aggressive responses.
  • Question 9

1 out of 1 points

The term _______ _______ _______ is used when the listener’s or (reader’s) performance is regulated by contingency-specifying stimuli.
  • Question 10

1 out of 1 points

_______ __ _______ involves doing what others do (imitating), in which the performance of an observer or learner is regulated by the actions of a model (correspondence).
  • Question 1

1 out of 1 points

In terms of good news and bad news, research suggests that:
Selected Answer: 

stimuli correlated with positive or negative reinforcement maintain an observing response

Answers: 

stimuli correlated with positive or negative reinforcement maintain an observing response

stimuli correlated with positive reinforcement and extinction maintain an observing response
stimuli correlated with punishment and extinction maintain an observing response
stimuli correlated with negative reinforcement and punishment maintain an observing response
  • Question 2

1 out of 1 points

In a _______, unconditioned reinforcement is programmed after completing two or more schedules, presented sequentially without discriminative stimuli.
Selected Answer: 

tandem schedule of reinforcement

Answers:chain schedule of reinforcement
 

tandem schedule of reinforcement

backward chain schedule of reinforcement
multiple chain schedule of reinforcement
  • Question 3

1 out of 1 points

According to Skinner (1953), a generalized conditioned reinforcer:
Selected Answer: 

is produced by pairing a conditioned reinforcer with more than one unconditioned reinforcer

Answers:is not very useful because it relies on the momentary deprivation/satiation of the organism
 

is produced by pairing a conditioned reinforcer with more than one unconditioned reinforcer

is produced by backward chaining of the unconditioned and conditioned reinforcers
is extremely useful because it can be carried around and made contingent on behavior
  • Question 4

1 out of 1 points

Predict the percentage of times that you would expect a person to choose gas station A in the following: gas station A is 5 minutes to the north and has an average wait time of 2 minutes for a pump while gas station B is 5 minutes to the south and has an average wait time of 4 minutes for a pump.
Selected Answer: 

70%

Answers:50%
60%
 

70%

80%
  • Question 5

1 out of 1 points

Research conducted by Fantino and Case (1983) on stimuli linked to feedback found that a stimulus correlated with _____ did not maintain human observing, but one linked to ____ did.
Selected Answer: 

bad news; no news

Answers:good news; no news
no news; bad news
reinforcement; punishment
 

bad news; no news

  • Question 6

1 out of 1 points

A golf instructor who teaches golf by beginning with the tee shot then working down to the short putt is using:
Selected Answer: 

forward chaining

Answers:a tandem schedule
 

forward chaining

a homogenous chain
a multiple-chain schedule
  • Question 7

1 out of 1 points

On a chain schedule of reinforcement, the longer the delay between the SD and the unconditioned reinforcement:
Selected Answer: 

the less effective the SD as a conditioned reinforcer

Answers: 

the less effective the SD as a conditioned reinforcer

the less the value of the unconditioned reinforcer
the greater the stimulus control
the more the value of the unconditioned reinforcer
  • Question 8

1 out of 1 points

Which of the following would reduce the effectiveness of a conditioned reinforcer?
Selected Answer: 

Increase the delay between the presentation of the conditioned and the unconditioned reinforcer

Answers:Increase the number of pairings between the conditioned reinforcer and the unconditioned reinforcer
Change the presentation of the unconditioned reinforcer from a fixed to a variable schedule
 

Increase the delay between the presentation of the conditioned and the unconditioned reinforcer

Present an establishing operation related to the unconditioned reinforcer
  • Question 9

1 out of 1 points

According to Skinner (1953), affection is best identified as:
Selected Answer: 

generalized social reinforcement

Answers: 

generalized social reinforcement

a primary reinforcer
a generalized reinforcer
a token reinforcer
  • Question 10

1 out of 1 points

Backward chaining involves:
Selected Answer: 

teaching the final component or link first

Answers:teaching the initial component or link first
 

teaching the final component or link first

teaching the final component or link in a random order
teaching from the middle to the last component or link
  • Question 1

1 out of 1 points

_______ _______ does not depend on deprivation or satiation for any specific reinforcer.
  • Question 2

1 out of 1 points

_______ _______ involve stimuli that have more than one function (multiple functions). The discriminative stimulus sets the occasion for a response that can sometimes be reinforced, and a chain schedule shows that the SD may also function as a conditioned reinforce.
  • Question 3

0 out of 1 points

Approval, attention, affection, and praise function as _______ _______ _______ human behavior.
  • Question 4

1 out of 1 points

The alternative way of teaching the child is to use a technique called _______ _______. The idea is to begin training at the end of the sequence.
  • Question 5

1 out of 1 points

[a] (two words) have three distinct components involving the [b] production schedule, the exchange-production schedule, and the [c] -exchange schedule “…”.
  • Question 6

1 out of 1 points

A _______ _______ _______ _______ involves two or more simple schedules (CRF, FI, VI, FR, or VR), each of which is presented sequentially and is signaled by an arbitrary stimulus.
  • Question 7

1 out of 1 points

A _______ _______ is a set of contingencies or a system based on token (conditioned) reinforcement.
  • Question 8

1 out of 1 points

_______ _______ occurs when behavior is strengthened by events that have an effect because of a conditioning history.
  • Question 9

1 out of 1 points

Operant chains are classified as _______ _______ when the topography or form of response is similar in each component.
  • Question 10

1 out of 1 points

On a chain schedule, the longer the delay between a discriminative stimulus and unconditioned reinforcement, the less effective it is a _______ _______.
  • Question 1

1 out of 1 points

The variable k in the power law form of the generalized matching equation (Baum, 1974) represents:
  • Question 2

1 out of 1 points

In the power law form of the generalized matching equation, a value of less than 1 indicates:
  • Question 3

1 out of 1 points

An SΔ sets the occasion upon which a response is ____ reinforced.
  • Question 4

1 out of 1 points

Responding 8 to the prompt “3+5” and 15 to the prompt “3×5” is an example of:
  • Question 5

0 out of 1 points

From a behavioral analysis standpoint, drug addiction is the product of ______.
  • Question 6

1 out of 1 points

An SD does not cause or elicit the appearance of a response the way a _____ does.
  • Question 7

0 out of 1 points

Which of the following would we expect from a participant that passes a test for generalized identity?
  • Question 8

1 out of 1 points

The SD and S∆ are presented at the same time and the organism responds to one or the other during a ______ procedure.
  • Question 9

1 out of 1 points

If reinforcers on one schedule are depleted and responding in another schedule increases, we call this ______.
  • Question 10

0 out of 1 points

A rat placed in a chamber with two response levers, each operating on variable interval schedules and with one that pays off approximately 5 reinforcers per minute and a second that pays off approximately 10 reinforcers per minute will most likely distribute its behavior as:
  • Question 1

1 out of 1 points

In terms of behavior, choice is concerned with _______.
  • Question 2

1 out of 1 points

Using the matching law, predict the distribution of responses between a key with a fixed-ratio 49 requirement and one with a variable-ratio 50:
  • Question 3

1 out of 1 points

Guttman and Kalish (1956) reinforced pigeons for pecking a particular color of light and then recorded their rate of pecking across the spectrum and found that:
  • Question 4

1 out of 1 points

Catania (1975, 1980) created a study where pigeons were able to choose between a choice and a no-choice condition and found that:
  • Question 5

1 out of 1 points

A two-component schedule in which both components have separate stimuli is called a ______.
  • Question 6

1 out of 1 points

If reinforcers from one source are depleted and responding in another source increases, we call this _____.
  • Question 7

1 out of 1 points

An SD does not cause or elicit the appearance of a response the way a _____ does.
  • Question 8

1 out of 1 points

When considering concurrent schedules of reinforcement, organisms often switch between alternatives. This can be explained by:
  • Question 9

1 out of 1 points

A shaping procedure whereby control gradually changes from one element to another is called _______.
  • Question 10

1 out of 1 points

If you trained a pigeon to turn a circle when a TURN sign was presented you could say the bird was _____.
  • Question 1

1 out of 1 points

Another kind of controlling stimulus is called an S _______ or an extinction stimulus.
  • Question 2

1 out of 1 points

_______ _______ occurs when the rate of response in an unchanged setting increases with a decline in behavior in another situation.
  • Question 3

1 out of 1 points

An _______ is a controlling stimulus that sets the occasion for reinforcement of an operant.
  • Question 4

1 out of 1 points

This equality or matching between relative rate of reinforcement and relative rate or response is known as the _______ _______.
  • Question 5

1 out of 1 points

A _______ _______  is said to alter the probability of an operant, in the sense that the response is more (or less) likely to occur when the stimulus is present.
  • Question 6

0 out of 1 points

_______ _______ occurs when the rate of response decreases in the unchanged component with increases in behavior in the other.
  • Question 7

1 out of 1 points

_______ involves a history of selection between good versus better, or sooner versus later, but rarely between exactly equal alternatives. The simple option to “choose” suggests an opportunity to improve your situation, and is usually preferable.
  • Question 8

1 out of 1 points

_______ involves transferring stimulus control from one value of a stimulus to another.
  • Question 9

1 out of 1 points

Thus the firs prerequisite of the choice paradigm is that _______ _______ must be used to study the distribution of behavior.
  • Question 10

0 out of 1 points

_______ _______ refers to the change in behavior that occurs when either an SD or an SΔ is presented.
  • Question 1

1 out of 1 points

The observation that pigeons will peck at a key light associated with the presentation of food even when doing so cancels the delivery of reinforcement is seen as evidence that:
  • Question 2

1 out of 1 points

During omission training pigeons produce _____ pecks to the illuminated key and during autoshaping pigeons produce _____ pecks to the illuminated key.
  • Question 3

1 out of 1 points

In terms of operant conditioning of reflexive behavior, the experiment by Miller and Carmona (1967) showed:
  • Question 4

1 out of 1 points

When considering adjunctive behaviors, there is _____ in adjunctive behaviors when the time between reinforcement increases.
  • Question 5

1 out of 1 points

When a CS compound (color and taste) is associated with illness, different species show avoidance to the two parts of the compound. This phenomenon is called:
  • Question 6

1 out of 1 points

Excessive drinking is technically called ____.
  • Question 7

0 out of 1 points

Pierce, Epling, and their colleagues found that the reinforcing value of wheel running:
  • Question 8

1 out of 1 points

Principles of behavior like extinction, discrimination, and spontaneous recovery:
  • Question 9

1 out of 1 points

What did Brown and Jenkins (1968) conclude about autoshaping in their pigeons?
  • Question 10

0 out of 1 points

The bivalent effect of wheel running in rats refers to:
  • Question 1

2.667 out of 2.667 points

A response to the CS presented in training but not to other values of the CS demonstrates:
  • Question 2

0 out of 2.667 points

If wheel running is a higher frequency operant, then wheel running will ______ drinking; if wheel running is a lower frequency operant, then wheel running will _____ drinking.
  • Question 3

2.667 out of 2.667 points

Resurgence happens when:
  • Question 4

0 out of 2.667 points

For a person that has been stung by a bee, the sound of a buzzing bee serves a dual function. These two functions are:
  • Question 5

0 out of 2.667 points

Selection by consequences occurs at three levels. What are these?
  • Question 6

0 out of 2.667 points

If a researcher is attempting to teach a pig to move discs to a designated location but is unable to because of the pig’s rooting reflex (to push the disc into the dirt), ______ has occurred.
  • Question 7

2.667 out of 2.667 points

Andrew spends a lot of timing playing guitar and very little time studying. ______ suggest(s) that playing the guitar could be a reinforcer for studying.
  • Question 8

0 out of 2.667 points

A “closed” sign on a store is an example of _____ for our door opening behavior.
  • Question 9

2.667 out of 2.667 points

Consider the following example: “A rat receives a pellet for pressing a lever 1 time.” This is an example of a(n) _______ schedule.
  • Question 10

0 out of 2.667 points

Principles of behavior like extinction, discrimination, and spontaneous recovery:
  • Question 11

0 out of 2.667 points

The critical measure on progressive-ratio (PR) schedules is typically:
  • Question 12

0 out of 2.667 points

Mechner’s notation used in behavioral analysis describes ___________.
  • Question 13

2.667 out of 2.667 points

The major difference between reaction chains and fixed action patterns is:
  • Question 14

2.667 out of 2.667 points

Adjunctive behavior refers to:
  • Question 15

0 out of 2.667 points

Behavior is said to be in transition when it is between:
  • Question 16

0 out of 2.667 points

Baseline sensitivity means that:
  • Question 17

2.667 out of 2.667 points

The basic finding for activity anorexia is that:
  • Question 18

0 out of 2.667 points

Consider the following example: “Your phone won’t allow you to make a call so you turn it off and then back on again. After this your phone allows you to make a call.” Identify the operant in this example.
  • Question 19

2.667 out of 2.667 points

A behavior analytic explanation of improved performance on an eye test by someone who recently explained that vision is important to their work (compared to someone who did not make such a statement) might include all of the following except:
  • Question 20

2.667 out of 2.667 points

In negative punishment, a stimulus is ______ and as a result behavior ______.
  • Question 21

2.667 out of 2.667 points

The Rescorla–Wagner theory suggests that conditioning can be sped up:
  • Question 22

0 out of 2.667 points

From a behavioral analysis standpoint, a child working hard to achieve good grades is caused by _______.
  • Question 23

2.667 out of 2.667 points

In positive reinforcement, a stimulus is ______ and as a result behavior _____.
  • Question 24

0 out of 2.667 points

Behavior analysts define culture as:
  • Question 25

2.667 out of 2.667 points

The way an individual chooses to turn on a light switch is an example of _______ of response. This is determined by the function and consequences.
  • Question 26

2.667 out of 2.667 points

Demonstrating a cause-and-effect relationship between two variables requires that:
  • Question 27

0 out of 2.667 points

In terms of operant-respondent interactions, persistence, and avoidance:
  • Question 28

0 out of 2.667 points

An operant class is:
  • Question 29

2.667 out of 2.667 points

Learned helplessness provides a behavioral explanation for:
  • Question 30

2.667 out of 2.667 points

Fixed action patterns are:
  • Question 31

2.667 out of 2.667 points

Behavior analysts recognize the importance of ____________________, but tend to focus more on __________________.
  • Question 32

2.667 out of 2.667 points

The Premack principle states that a higher frequency behavior will:
  • Question 33

2.667 out of 2.667 points

Punishers that have to be used repeatedly indicate:
  • Question 34

0 out of 2.667 points

Which of the following research questions would be the most difficult to address using a reversal design?
  • Question 35

0 out of 2.667 points

Consider the following example: “Bob is running late for work so he drives faster than usual. As a result of his increased speed, Bob is pulled over by a police officer and receives a ticket. The next time Bob is running late for work he drives at the correct speed.” This is an example of _____.
  • Question 36

0 out of 2.667 points

Doyle and Samson (1988) found what relationship between beer drinking and the length of a fixed-interval schedule?
  • Question 37

0 out of 2.667 points

Hackenberg and Hineline (1987) gave one group of rats an avoidance period from electric shock before food and one group after food. They found that:
  • Question 38

2.667 out of 2.667 points

The experimental analysis of behavior is ________.
  • Question 39

0 out of 2.667 points

Falk (1977) suggested that the adaptive function of adjunctive behavior may be to:
  • Question 40

0 out of 2.667 points

The response cost procedure is an example of ______.
  • Question 41

0 out of 2.667 points

With regards to the laws of the reflex, the relation between the conditioned stimulus and the conditioned response (CS–CR):
  • Question 42

2.667 out of 2.667 points

Although she was happy in the relationship, Joan decided to break up with her boyfriend several weeks ago. He tried contacting her for several days afterward, but after several weeks without any response from Joan, he stopped trying to contact her. Then, one day, Joan accidentally sends her ex a text message asking about his day. After this message, he starts frequently texting and calling Joan again. This reappearance of the previously extinguished behavior is an example of:
  • Question 43

0 out of 2.667 points

The neural basis of reward most closely involves:
  • Question 44

2.667 out of 2.667 points

Before Frank could begin his research project, he had to train his rat to press the lever by reinforcing successive approximations of lever pressing. This technique is known as:
  • Question 45

0 out of 2.667 points

Overall, backward conditioning appears to be ineffective except when the CS is:
  • Question 46

2.667 out of 2.667 points

The time between shocks or the ______ interval and the time away from shocks produced by responses or the _____ interval are two aspects of escape and avoidance.
  • Question 47

2.667 out of 2.667 points

Max finds that his new dog will work really hard for bites of a doggy treat at the beginning of a training session, but appears to lose interest in the treats the more that Max gives to him. This is an example of:
  • Question 48

0 out of 2.667 points

A _______ is behavior that is elicited by a biologically relevant stimulus while a/an ______ is behavior controlled by its consequences.
  • Question 49

0 out of 2.667 points

Azrin, Holz, and Hake’s (1963) study on punishment and food deprivation in pigeons demonstrated that:
  • Question 50

0 out of 2.667 points

From the perspective of a behavior analyst, “cravings” can be explained as:
  • Question 51

0 out of 2.667 points

When analyzing response patterns during extinction, if there are increasing periods of pausing followed by high rates of response, the organism’s behavior is in a(n) ______ pattern.
  • Question 52

2.667 out of 2.667 points

Which of the following is not a difference between Skinner and Watson?
  • Question 53

0 out of 2.667 points

Progressive-ratio (PR) schedules are frequently used to evaluate:
  • Question 54

2.667 out of 2.667 points

A researcher reports that a classroom where students received points that could be exchanged for extra recess time whenever they completed math practice problems saw an average increase of five completed homework problems per child per day compared to baseline. In terms of evaluating the effectiveness of this program, the researcher would most likely focus on:
  • Question 55

0 out of 2.667 points

Phenomena like instinctive drift, sign tracking, and autoshaping have been analyzed as:
  • Question 56

0 out of 2.667 points

Which of the following is not an example of respondent conditioning?
  • Question 57

0 out of 2.667 points

Kobayashi and colleagues demonstrated that the presentation of juice in the mouth following a spike in neural activity could be used as a reinforcer for activity in the _____ of Japanese monkeys.
  • Question 58

0 out of 2.667 points

The magnitude at which the unconditioned response reaches its asymptote is determined by:
  • Question 59

2.667 out of 2.667 points

In order to treat her son’s frequent tantrums while out shopping, Ruby put his tantrum behavior on extinction by refusing to buy any treats when he tantrums in the store. This works and her son does not tantrum any more while shopping. Then, suddenly, the tantrum behavior reappears one day while they are out shopping. This reappearance of the previously extinguished behavior is an example of:
  • Question 60

2.667 out of 2.667 points

Roll, Higgins, and Badger (1996) tested the effectiveness of schedules of reinforcement for reducing cigarette smoking. The results of their study indicated that:
  • Question 1

1 out of 1 points

In general, _______ _______ refers to any excessive and persistent behavior pattern that occurs as a side effect of reinforcement delivery.
  • Question 2

1 out of 1 points

Respondent behavior is elicited by the events that precede it, and_______ are strengthed (or weakened) by stimulus consequences that follow them. operants.
  • Question 3

1 out of 1 points

Taste aversion is another example of biological factors underlying _______ procedures.
  • Question 4

1 out of 1 points

That is, once _______ _______ is elicited and reinforced, it is controlled by its consequences and is considered to be operant.
  • Question 5

1 out of 1 points

_______ _______ during an organism’s lifetime selects response topographies, rates of response, and repertoires of behavior through the feedback from reinforcing consequences.
  • Question 6

1 out of 1 points

_______ _______ refers to species-characteristic behavior patterns that became progressively more invasive during training or conditioning “…”
  • Question 7

1 out of 1 points

Thus, the temporal arrangement of signal followed by response, and the _____________ of the responses, both suggest respondent conditioning.
  • Question 8

1 out of 1 points

That is, once respondent behavior is elicited and reinforced, it is controlled by its ____________________ and is considered to be operant.
  • Question 9

1 out of 1 points

There are also occasions when behavior that appears to be respondent is ___________ by its consequences and is therefore operant behavior.
  • Question 10

1 out of 1 points

Therefore, it appears that for some stimuli the animal is prepared by nature to make a connection and for others it may even be _______________.
  • Question 1

1 out of 1 points

For learned helplessness, pre-exposure to escape _____ the helplessness brought on by _____ aversive stimulation:
Selected Answer: 

blocks; inescapable

Answers: 

blocks; inescapable

causes; excessive
enhances; noncontingent
augments; expected
  • Question 2

0 out of 1 points

Which of the following environmental changes most influences responding during a timeout from avoidance procedure?
Selected Answer: 

The stimulus change signaling the onset of the timeout period

Answers:The stimulus change signaling the onset of the timeout period
The reduction in overall frequency of the aversive event
 

The reduction in response effort during the timeout period

The increased availability of food during the timeout period
  • Question 3

1 out of 1 points

Punishers that have to be used repeatedly indicate:
Selected Answer: 

that they are ineffective and should be discontinued

Answers:that they should be gradually intensified and their use continued
 

that they are ineffective and should be discontinued

that they are doing their job and should be continued
that while they are effective they should be discontinued
  • Question 4

1 out of 1 points

If an organism emits an alternate behavior, that behavior can be seen as a(n) ____ if it occurs during punishment, and a(n) ____ if it prevents punishment.
Selected Answer: 

escape behavior; avoidance behavior

Answers:respondent behavior; operant behavior
avoidance behavior; escape behavior
operant behavior; respondent behavior
 

escape behavior; avoidance behavior

  • Question 5

0 out of 1 points

A real-life example of ______ can be seen in individuals suffering from obsessive-compulsive disorder who compulsively wash their hands because they fear exposure to germs.
Selected Answer: 

discriminated avoidance

Answers:discriminated reinforcement
 

nondiscriminated avoidance

nondiscriminated reinforcement
discriminated avoidance
  • Question 6

1 out of 1 points

If wheel running is a higher frequency operant, then wheel running will ______ drinking; if wheel running is a lower frequency operant, then wheel running will _____ drinking.
Selected Answer: 

reinforce; punish

Answers:determine; undermine
diminish; exacerbate
 

reinforce; punish

decrease; increase
  • Question 7

1 out of 1 points

Research on the use of skin-shock punishment in treatment of self-injurious behavior:
Selected Answer: 

indicates that skin-shock treatment eliminates the need for physical restraint

Answers:shows many side effects of punishments
indicates that skin shocks have no effect on non-targeted behavior
found an increase in aggressive and destructive behavior with skin shocks
 

indicates that skin-shock treatment eliminates the need for physical restraint

  • Question 8

1 out of 1 points

The time between shocks or the ______ interval and the time away from shocks produced by responses or the _____ interval are two aspects of escape and avoidance.
Selected Answer: 

shock–shock; response–shock

Answers:aversive; postponement
shocking; responding
 

shock–shock; response–shock

temporal shock; response time
  • Question 9

0 out of 1 points

Consider the following example: “Paige got a ticket for littering. As a result she has to pick up trash along the highway for at least 20 hours.” This is an example of _______.
Selected Answer: 

negative punishment

Answers: 

overcorrection

timeout procedure
response cost procedure
negative punishment
  • Question 10

0 out of 1 points

Recent neural studies suggest that learned helplessness techniques may contribute to depression by:
Selected Answer: 

increasing inhibitory synaptic responses in the LHb

Answers:increasing inhibitory synaptic responses in the LHb
decreasing inhibitory synaptic responses in the LHb
 

increasing excitatory synaptic responses in the LHb

decreasing excitatory synaptic responses in the LHb
  • Question 1

1 out of 1 points

For learned helplessness, pre-exposure to escape _____ the helplessness brought on by _____ aversive stimulation:
Selected Answer: 

blocks; inescapable

Answers: 

blocks; inescapable

causes; excessive
enhances; noncontingent
augments; expected
  • Question 2

0 out of 1 points

Recent neural studies suggest that learned helplessness techniques may contribute to depression by:
Selected Answer: 

decreasing inhibitory synaptic responses in the LHb

Answers:increasing inhibitory synaptic responses in the LHb
decreasing inhibitory synaptic responses in the LHb
 

increasing excitatory synaptic responses in the LHb

decreasing excitatory synaptic responses in the LHb
  • Question 3

0 out of 1 points

Consider the following example: “Paige got a ticket for littering. As a result she has to pick up trash along the highway for at least 20 hours.” This is an example of _______.
Selected Answer: 

negative punishment

Answers: 

overcorrection

timeout procedure
response cost procedure
negative punishment
  • Question 4

1 out of 1 points

In terms of operant-respondent interactions, persistence, and avoidance:
Selected Answer: 

operant avoidance prevents respondent extinction

Answers: 

operant avoidance prevents respondent extinction

operant avoidance interacts with respondent aggression
operant avoidance competes with respondent avoidance
operant avoidance sets the occasion for respondent aversion
  • Question 5

1 out of 1 points

In terms of aversive stimuli, attacks and foul odors are _______ while threats and falling grades are ______.
Selected Answer: 

primary; conditioned

Answers:potent; impotent
natural; secondary
 

primary; conditioned

primitive; cultured
  • Question 6

1 out of 1 points

For a person that has been stung by a bee, the sound of a buzzing bee serves a dual function. These two functions are:
Selected Answer: 

CS- and aversive stimulus

Answers: 

CS- and aversive stimulus

CS+ and aversive stimulus
CS- and an appetitive stimulus
CS+ and an appetitive stimulus
  • Question 7

0 out of 1 points

Berton and colleagues (2006) found that the regulation of avoidance behavior in mice confronted by an aversive social target requires BDNF (brain-derived neurotrophic factor) from the:
Selected Answer: 

medial prefrontal cortex (MPC)

Answers:nucleus accumbens (Nac)
 

vental tegmental area (VTA)

amygdala (AMY)
medial prefrontal cortex (MPC)
  • Question 8

1 out of 1 points

Considering evidence gained by experimental behavior analysis, introducing spanking at a low intensity and gradually increasing intensity:
Selected Answer: 

eventually creates a situation where an unreasonable intensity is necessary

Answers:is an effective approach to reducing the problem behavior
 

eventually creates a situation where an unreasonable intensity is necessary

is more effective than maintaining a single intensity
is not as effective as maintaining a low intensity
  • Question 9

0 out of 1 points

Azrin, Holz, and Hake’s (1963) study on punishment and food deprivation in pigeons demonstrated that:
Selected Answer: 

the type of food reward in relation to deprivation changes the efficacy of the punisher

Answers:the more food-deprived the pigeons were the higher the efficacy of the punisher
 

the more food-deprived the pigeons were the lower the efficacy of the punisher

the type of food reward in relation to deprivation changes the efficacy of the punisher
the efficacy of the punisher remained constant regardless of the level of deprivation
  • Question 10

0 out of 1 points

The procedure of nondiscriminative avoidance is also called _______.
Selected Answer: 

signaled avoidance

Answers: 

Sidman avoidance

signaled avoidance
sensory aversion
Stevens aversion
  • Question 1

1 out of 1 points

Learned helplessness provides a behavioral explanation for:
Selected Answer: 

all of the above

Answers:the aversive control Nazi jailers maintained over their captors
the relationship between alcohol dependence and depression
social withdrawal in children whose parents fail to set consistent rules and standards
 

all of the above

  • Question 2

1 out of 1 points

If wheel running is a higher frequency operant, then wheel running will ______ drinking; if wheel running is a lower frequency operant, then wheel running will _____ drinking.
Selected Answer: 

reinforce; punish

Answers:determine; undermine
diminish; exacerbate
 

reinforce; punish

decrease; increase
  • Question 3

0 out of 1 points

Berton and colleagues (2006) found that the regulation of avoidance behavior in mice confronted by an aversive social target requires BDNF (brain-derived neurotrophic factor) from the:
Selected Answer: 

nucleus accumbens (Nac)

Answers:nucleus accumbens (Nac)
 

vental tegmental area (VTA)

amygdala (AMY)
medial prefrontal cortex (MPC)
  • Question 4

1 out of 1 points

Punishers that have to be used repeatedly indicate:
Selected Answer: 

that they are ineffective and should be discontinued

Answers:that they should be gradually intensified and their use continued
 

that they are ineffective and should be discontinued

that they are doing their job and should be continued
that while they are effective they should be discontinued
  • Question 5

1 out of 1 points

For learned helplessness, pre-exposure to escape _____ the helplessness brought on by _____ aversive stimulation:
Selected Answer: 

blocks; inescapable

Answers: 

blocks; inescapable

causes; excessive
enhances; noncontingent
augments; expected
  • Question 6

1 out of 1 points

Research on the use of skin-shock punishment in treatment of self-injurious behavior:
Selected Answer: 

indicates that skin-shock treatment eliminates the need for physical restraint

Answers:shows many side effects of punishments
indicates that skin shocks have no effect on non-targeted behavior
found an increase in aggressive and destructive behavior with skin shocks
 

indicates that skin-shock treatment eliminates the need for physical restraint

  • Question 7

1 out of 1 points

Consider the following example: “Paige got a ticket for littering. As a result she has to pick up trash along the highway for at least 20 hours.” This is an example of _______.
Selected Answer: 

overcorrection

Answers: 

overcorrection

timeout procedure
response cost procedure
negative punishment
  • Question 8

1 out of 1 points

In terms of dropping out, Sidman (2001) indicates that one basic element is:
Selected Answer: 

escape due to negative reinforcement

Answers:escape due to a history of inescapable shock
escape due to contingencies of avoidance
escape due to punishment
 

escape due to negative reinforcement

  • Question 9

1 out of 1 points

In terms of aversive stimuli, attacks and foul odors are _______ while threats and falling grades are ______.
Selected Answer: 

primary; conditioned

Answers:potent; impotent
natural; secondary
 

primary; conditioned

primitive; cultured
  • Question 10

1 out of 1 points

The response cost procedure is an example of ______.
Selected Answer: 

negative punishment

Answers:negative reinforcement
 

negative punishment

positive punishment
positive reinforcement
  • Question 1

1 out of 1 points

Which of the following environmental changes most influences responding during a timeout from avoidance procedure?
  • Question 2

1 out of 1 points

In terms of operant-respondent interactions, persistence, and avoidance:
  • Question 3

1 out of 1 points

If wheel running is a higher frequency operant, then wheel running will ______ drinking; if wheel running is a lower frequency operant, then wheel running will _____ drinking.
  • Question 4

0 out of 1 points

If an organism emits an alternate behavior, that behavior can be seen as a(n) ____ if it occurs during punishment, and a(n) ____ if it prevents punishment.
  • Question 5

1 out of 1 points

In terms of aversive stimuli, attacks and foul odors are _______ while threats and falling grades are ______.
  • Question 6

0 out of 1 points

When an aversive consequence is delivered to an individual, one possible side effect is that they retaliate in an aggressive manor toward the individual. This type of retaliatory behavior is known as:
  • Question 7

1 out of 1 points

Skinner (1953) reported a game played by sailors in the 18th century. The game involved:
  • Question 8

0 out of 1 points

A real-life example of ______ can be seen in individuals suffering from obsessive-compulsive disorder who compulsively wash their hands because they fear exposure to germs.
  • Question 9

0 out of 1 points

Azrin, Holz, and Hake’s (1963) study on punishment and food deprivation in pigeons demonstrated that:
  • Question 10

0 out of 1 points

Which of the following is true regarding escape and avoidance responses?
  • Question 1

1 out of 1 points

_______ _______ are those events that organisms evade, avoid, or escape from.
  • Question 2

0 out of 1 points

Any event or stimulus that increases operant rate by its removal “…” is called a _______ _______.
  • Question 3

0.5 out of 1 points

When an ongoing stimulus is removed contingent on a response and this removal results in a decrease in the rate of behavior, the contingency is called ___[x]_______ or ___[y]_______.
  • Question 4

1 out of 1 points

Unlike reinforcement, _______ __ _______ do not teach or condition new behavior.
  • Question 5

1 out of 1 points

Because the organism only responds when the warning signal occurs, the procedure is called _______ _______.
  • Question 6

1 out of 1 points

One way to place avoidance behavior on _______ is to expose the organism to aversive stimulation while preventing effective escape responses.
  • Question 7

1 out of 1 points

For people, _______ _______ _______ include threats, public criticism, a failing grade, a frown, and verbal disapproval.
  • Question 8

1 out of 1 points

_______ _______ occurs when a stimulus is presented following an operant and the operant decreases in frequency.
  • Question 9

1 out of 1 points

In _______ _______ , an operant changes the situation from one in which a negative reinforce is present to once in which it is absent, for some period of time.
  • Question 10

0 out of 1 points

Any event or stimulus that decreases the rate of operant behavior is called a _______.
  • Question 1

1 out of 1 points

One way to place avoidance behavior on _______ is to expose the organism to aversive stimulation while preventing effective escape responses.
  • Question 2

1 out of 1 points

When an ongoing stimulus is removed contingent on a response and this removal results in a decrease in the rate of behavior, the contingency is called ___[x]_______ or ___[y]_______.
  • Question 3

1 out of 1 points

Unlike reinforcement, _______ __ _______ do not teach or condition new behavior.
  • Question 4

1 out of 1 points

_______ _______ occurs when a stimulus is presented following an operant and the operant decreases in frequency.
  • Question 5

1 out of 1 points

In _______ _______ , an operant changes the situation from one in which a negative reinforce is present to once in which it is absent, for some period of time.
  • Question 6

1 out of 1 points

Any event or stimulus that decreases the rate of operant behavior is called a _______.
  • Question 7

1 out of 1 points

Any event or stimulus that increases operant rate by its removal “…” is called a _______ _______.
  • Question 8

1 out of 1 points

For people, _______ _______ _______ include threats, public criticism, a failing grade, a frown, and verbal disapproval.
  • Question 9

0 out of 1 points

_______ _______ are those events that organisms evade, avoid, or escape from.
  • Question 10

1 out of 1 points

Because the organism only responds when the warning signal occurs, the procedure is called _______ _______.
  • Question 1

1 out of 1 points

Following a schedule of reinforcement and an acquisition period behavior typically settles into a _____, which becomes very predictable.
Selected Answer: 

stable state

Answers: 

stable state

performance decline
homeostatic performance
performance increase
  • Question 2

1 out of 1 points

A slot machine is an example of a ______ schedule of reinforcement.
Selected Answer: 

random ratio

Answers:variable interval
fixed ratio
fixed interval
 

random ratio

  • Question 3

1 out of 1 points

From a behavioral analysis standpoint, a child working hard to achieve good grades is caused by _______.
Selected Answer: 

environmental contingencies

Answers:high motivation
low motivation
 

environmental contingencies

positive reinforcement
  • Question 4

1 out of 1 points

A schedule that is made up of a series of alternately presented fixed-ratio (FR) schedules with the following values, FR 5, FR 10, FR 20, FR 25, and FR 40, would be best described as:
Selected Answer: 

a variable ratio 20 schedule

Answers: 

a variable ratio 20 schedule

a fixed ratio 20 schedule
a variable ratio 100 schedule
a fixed ratio 100 schedule
  • Question 5

1 out of 1 points

Consider the following example: “Jill’s boss stops by her desk periodically throughout the day to check her progress and ask questions.” This is an example of a ______ schedule of reinforcement.
Selected Answer: 

variable interval

Answers: 

variable interval

fixed ratio
fixed interval
variable ratio
  • Question 6

1 out of 1 points

Consider the following example: “A rat receives a pellet for the first response after 5 minutes regardless of how often they press the lever.” This is an example of a(n) _____ schedule.
Selected Answer: 

interval

Answers: 

interval

ratio
concurrent
baseline
  • Question 7

0 out of 1 points

What is the relationship between the experimental analysis of behavior and the organism’s memories and thought processes?
Selected Answer: 

It is important to use behavior as a means to infer both cognitions and memories in the individual exhibiting the behavior

Answers:It is important to use behavior as a means to infer both cognitions and memories in the individual exhibiting the behavior
 

An experimental analysis of behavior discourages speculations on memories and thought processes

Without an understanding of the organism’s thought process behavior cannot be changed
An experimental analysis of behavior rejects free choice and therefore sees cognition and memory as irrelevant
  • Question 8

1 out of 1 points

The shape of the response pattern generated by an FI is called a ______.
Selected Answer: 

scallop

Answers:break and pause
ogive
accelerating dynamic
 

scallop

  • Question 9

1 out of 1 points

Online farming games often require the player to return after a certain amount of time to collect their crop. If the player fails to check their crop within a specified amount of time after it is ready for harvest will die and no longer “pay” when harvested. This is an example of:
Selected Answer: 

a limited hold

Answers: 

a limited hold

a postreinforcement pause
break-and-run responding
behavioral momentum
  • Question 10

1 out of 1 points

Schedules that generate predictable stair-step patterns are:
Selected Answer: 

fixed ratio

Answers:random ratio
variable ratio
 

fixed ratio

fixed interval
  • Question 1

0.5 out of 1 points

_____[x]______ or ___[y]____, is probably the simplest schedule of reinforcement. On this schedule, every operant required by the contingency is reinforced.
  • Question 2

1 out of 1 points

A _________ __ _________ describes the arrangement of stimuli, operants, and consequences.
  • Question 3

1 out of 1 points

The time between any two responses, or what is called the _______ _______, may be treated as an operant.
  • Question 4

1 out of 1 points

During extinction, the _______ _______ _______ pattern shows increasing periods of pausing followed by high rates of response.
  • Question 5

1 out of 1 points

Research shows that _______[x]_______ is a function of the interreinforcement interval (IRI). As the IRI becomes longer, the ___[y]____ increases.
  • Question 6

1 out of 1 points

On a _______ _______ schedule, responses are reinforced after a variable amount of time has passed.
  • Question 7

1 out of 1 points

A _______ _______ schedule is programmed to deliver reinforcement after a fixed number of responses have been made.
  • Question 8

1 out of 1 points

_______ _______ schedules are similar to FRs except tht the number of responses required for reinforcement changes after each reinforce is presented.
  • Question 9

1 out of 1 points

Fixed-interval schedules produce a characteristic steady-state pattern of responding. There is a pause after reinforcement (PRP), then a few probe responses, followed by more and more rapid responding to a constant high rate as the interval times out. This pattern is called _______.
  • Question 10

1 out of 1 points

On _______ _______ schedules, an operant is reinforced after a fixed amount of time has passed.
  • Question 1

0 out of 1 points

A “closed” sign on a store is an example of _____ for our door opening behavior.
Selected Answer: 

partial reinforcement

Answers:discriminative stimulus
partial reinforcement
 

discriminated extinction

shaping
  • Question 2

1 out of 1 points

Andrew spends a lot of timing playing guitar and very little time studying. ______ suggest(s) that playing the guitar could be a reinforcer for studying.
Selected Answer: 

The Premack principle

Answers:Punishment theories
Respondent conditioning
Social cognitive conditioning
 

The Premack principle

  • Question 3

0 out of 1 points

The extinction burst refers to:
Selected Answer: 

increased emotional responding that occurs during extinction

Answers: 

an increase in frequency of the behavior when extinction is first started

an increase in the variability of behavior when extinction is first started
increased emotional responding that occurs during extinction
the tendency for previously reinforced behavior to reappear during extinction
  • Question 4

1 out of 1 points

In negative punishment, a stimulus is ______ and as a result behavior ______.
Selected Answer: 

removed; decreases

Answers: 

removed; decreases

added; decreases
removed; increases
added; increases
  • Question 5

1 out of 1 points

The Premack principle states that a higher frequency behavior will:
Selected Answer: 

function as reinforcement for a lower-frequency behavior

Answers: 

function as reinforcement for a lower-frequency behavior

function as intermittent reinforcement for a low-frequency behavior
function as punishment for a high-frequency behavior
none of these
  • Question 6

1 out of 1 points

In terms of rewards and intrinsic motivation, Cameron et al. (2001) conducted a statistical procedure called _____ and one of the findings indicated that verbal rewards ____ performance and interest on tasks.
Selected Answer: 

meta-analysis; increased

Answers:multivariate analysis; increased
multivariate analysis; decreased
meta-analysis; decreased
 

meta-analysis; increased

  • Question 7

1 out of 1 points

In terms of response stereotypes, variability, and reinforcement, the work by Barry Schwartz shows that reinforcement can produce _____ patterns of behavior while the work of Neuringer and colleagues indicates that reinforcement can produce ________.
Selected Answer: 

stereotyped; response variability

Answers:stereotyped; response stability
 

stereotyped; response variability

response variability; stereotype
response stability; response variability
  • Question 8

1 out of 1 points

Which of the following best illustrates a study using the free-operant method?
Selected Answer: 

A rat is placed in a chamber for 1 hour with a freely available lever that delivers food after every 10th response

Answers:A rat receives an electric shock following a 5-second light-on interval
A rat is required to run in a maze until it finds the food box and is then removed from the box
 

A rat is placed in a chamber for 1 hour with a freely available lever that delivers food after every 10th response

A rat is given free access to high-calorie food, is subsequently euthanized, and then its brain is compared to the brains of rats that ate only low-calorie foods
  • Question 9

1 out of 1 points

Which of the following is (are) involved in the partial reinforcement effect?
Selected Answer: 

All of these

Answers:Discrimination between reinforcement and extinction is more rapid on CRF
Longer extinction on intermittent reinforcement compared with CRF
The higher the rate of reinforcement the greater the resistance to change
 

All of these

  • Question 10

1 out of 1 points

Before Frank could begin his research project, he had to train his rat to press the lever by reinforcing successive approximations of lever pressing. This technique is known as:
Selected Answer: 

shaping

Answers:extinction
operant level
 

shaping

acquisition
  • Question 1

1 out of 1 points

Consider the following example: “Joanne is very fair skinned. In order to not get sunburned, she puts on sunscreen before she goes to the beach.” This is an example of ______.
Selected Answer: 

negative reinforcement

Answers:positive reinforcement
 

negative reinforcement

positive punishment
negative punishment
  • Question 2

1 out of 1 points

Consider the following example: “Kendra stays out two hours past curfew. As a result of her tardiness, her parents take away her privileges to go out for two weeks. The next time Kendra goes out she makes sure to come home on time.” This is an example of _______.
Selected Answer: 

negative punishment

Answers:positive reinforcement
negative reinforcement
positive punishment
 

negative punishment

  • Question 3

0 out of 1 points

A “closed” sign on a store is an example of _____ for our door opening behavior.
Selected Answer: 

shaping

Answers:discriminative stimulus
partial reinforcement
 

discriminated extinction

shaping
  • Question 4

0 out of 1 points

The extinction burst refers to:
Selected Answer: 

increased emotional responding that occurs during extinction

Answers: 

an increase in frequency of the behavior when extinction is first started

an increase in the variability of behavior when extinction is first started
increased emotional responding that occurs during extinction
the tendency for previously reinforced behavior to reappear during extinction
  • Question 5

1 out of 1 points

The _______ is the behavior that produces the opportunity to engage in some activity.
Selected Answer: 

instrumental response

Answers:manipulative response
 

instrumental response

maladaptive response
contingent response
  • Question 6

1 out of 1 points

In negative punishment, a stimulus is ______ and as a result behavior ______.
Selected Answer: 

removed; decreases

Answers: 

removed; decreases

added; decreases
removed; increases
added; increases
  • Question 7

1 out of 1 points

Consider the following example: “Your phone won’t allow you to make a call so you turn it off and then back on again. After this your phone allows you to make a call.” Identify the operant in this example.
Selected Answer: 

Turning the phone on and off

Answers:Your phone allowing you to make calls
Your phone no longer allowing you to make calls
 

Turning the phone on and off

This is respondent, as opposed to operant, conditioning
  • Question 8

1 out of 1 points

To experimentally study the probability of response, a researcher uses ____ as the basic measure and follows the ____ method.
Selected Answer: 

operant rate; free operant

Answers:operant rate; T-maze
latency; T-maze
 

operant rate; free operant

latency; free operant
  • Question 9

1 out of 1 points

One of the main criticisms of behavioral rewards and reinforcement is the idea that ______.
Selected Answer: 

external rewards will lead to lower intrinsic motivation

Answers: 

external rewards will lead to lower intrinsic motivation

external rewards will lead to higher intrinsic motivation
intrinsic motivation will not be effected by external motivation
internal rewards will lead to lower intrinsic motivation
  • Question 10

0 out of 1 points

Response deprivation has what effect on the response hierarchy in a free-choice setting?
Selected Answer: 

Deprivation can lead to the performance of all behaviors to increase in frequency creating excessive responding

Answers:Deprivation removes the free-choice element of decision-making
Deprivation can lead to the performance of all behaviors to increase in frequency creating excessive responding
 

Deprivation can lead to a behavior moving up on the response hierarchy, functioning as greater reinforcement at a given moment

Deprivation does not affect the response hierarchy
  • Question 1

1 out of 1 points

The procedure of withholding reinforcement for a previously reinforced response is called _______.
  • Question 2

1 out of 1 points

For example, spanking a child for running onto a busy road is _______ _______ if the child now stops (or turns) before reaching the road.
  • Question 3

1 out of 1 points

When an operant results in the removal of an event, and this procedure increases the rate of response, the contingency is called _______ _______.
  • Question 4

1 out of 1 points

_______ are responses that operate on the environment to produce changes and as a result have an increased (or decreased) probability of occurrence.
  • Question 5

1 out of 1 points

Once baseline measures of behavior have been taken, the _______ _______ holds that any higher-frequency (or longer duration) behavior may serve as reinforcement for any behavior of lower frequency.
  • Question 6

1 out of 1 points

_______ refers to the physical form or characteristics of the response.
  • Question 7

1 out of 1 points

In these examples, watching television, talking to others, participating in classroom activities are assumed to be reinforcing events. When removal of these events contingent of fighting, telling sexist jokes, or passing notes decreases such behavior, _______ _______ has occurred.
  • Question 8

1 out of 1 points

A _______ _______ _______ defines the relationship between the events that set the occasion for behavior, the operant class, and the consequences that follow this behavior.
  • Question 9

1 out of 1 points

A _______ _______ is defined as any consequence that increases the probability of the operant that produced it.
  • Question 10

1 out of 1 points

[x] (two words) usually include consequences such as food, praise, and money. These events, however, cannot be called [y] (two words) until they have been shown to increase behavior.
  • Question 1

1 out of 1 points

George is using a conditioning procedure where a light (the NS/US) is turned on for one second. 250 milliseconds before the light is turned off, a brief puff of air is blown into the eye of his participants. This is an example of:
  • Question 2

1 out of 1 points

A reduction in the UR due to repeated presentation of the US is called:
  • Question 3

0 out of 1 points

The major difference between reaction chains and fixed action patterns is:
  • Question 4

1 out of 1 points

Behavior relations based on the genetic endowment of the organism are called:
  • Question 5

1 out of 1 points

With regards to the laws of the reflex, the relation between the conditioned stimulus and the conditioned response (CS–CR):
  • Question 6

1 out of 1 points

Recently, Joan invited Francine to have lunch with her at her favorite restaurant. They both order Francine’s favorite dish and they both received food poisoning from some poorly cleaned lettuce. Joan develops a taste aversion to the dish, but Francine does not. Which concept below best describes why Francine did not develop a taste aversion to the food?
  • Question 7

1 out of 1 points

Overall, backward conditioning appears to be ineffective except when the CS is:
  • Question 8

1 out of 1 points

McCully (1982) suggested that many overdoses may be the result of:
  • Question 9

1 out of 1 points

Which law governing reflexes asserts that as the intensity of the stimulus increases so does the strength of the responses?
  • Question 10

1 out of 1 points

One of the following is not one of the four ways discussed in the text for pairing a CS and a US:
  • Question 1

1 out of 1 points

Recently, Joan invited Francine to have lunch with her at her favorite restaurant. They both order Francine’s favorite dish and they both received food poisoning from some poorly cleaned lettuce. Joan develops a taste aversion to the dish, but Francine does not. Which concept below best describes why Francine did not develop a taste aversion to the food?
Selected Answer: 

Latent inhibition

Answers:Respondent discrimination
US-preexposure effect
 

Latent inhibition

Blocking
  • Question 2

1 out of 1 points

Which law governing reflexes asserts that as the intensity of the stimulus increases so does the strength of the responses?
Selected Answer: 

The law of intensity–magnitude

Answers:The law of latency
 

The law of intensity–magnitude

The law of response
The law of the threshold
  • Question 3

0 out of 1 points

With regards to the laws of the reflex, the relation between the conditioned stimulus and the conditioned response (CS–CR):
Selected Answer: 

typically holds true for both the law of intensity magnitude and the law of the latency

Answers:typically holds true for the law of intensity magnitude only
typically holds true for the law of the latency only
typically holds true for both the law of intensity magnitude and the law of the latency
 

typically do not hold true for any of the laws of the reflex

  • Question 4

1 out of 1 points

Overall, backward conditioning appears to be ineffective except when the CS is:
Selected Answer: 

biologically relevant

Answers:visual
a puff of air or other tactile sensation
 

biologically relevant

a sound
  • Question 5

1 out of 1 points

The major difference between reaction chains and fixed action patterns is:
Selected Answer: 

each set of responses in a reaction chain requires an appropriate stimulus to set it off

Answers:each set of responses in a fixed action pattern requires an appropriate stimulus to set it off
any stimulus may set off a reaction chain
 

each set of responses in a reaction chain requires an appropriate stimulus to set it off

any stimulus may set off a fixed action pattern
  • Question 6

0 out of 1 points

The Rescorla–Wagner theory suggests that conditioning can be sped up:
Selected Answer: 

by presenting the CS without the US

Answers:through backward conditioning
by presenting the CS without the US
by presenting the US without the CS
 

by increasing the salience of the CS

  • Question 7

1 out of 1 points

When the relationship is invariant and biologically based, the eliciting event is the ____ and the behavior following is the _____.
Selected Answer: 

unconditioned stimulus; unconditioned response

Answers:conditioned stimulus; conditioned response
unconditioned stimulus; conditioned response
conditioned stimulus; unconditioned response
 

unconditioned stimulus; unconditioned response

  • Question 8

0 out of 1 points

While all members of a species share the same _________________ history, each member has a unique _______________ history
Selected Answer: 

ontogenetic; phylogenetic

Answers: 

phylogenetic; ontogenetic

ontogenetic; individual
individual; phylogenetic
ontogenetic; phylogenetic
  • Question 9

1 out of 1 points

The magnitude at which the unconditioned response reaches its asymptote is determined by:
Selected Answer: 

the strength of the unconditioned stimulus

Answers:the number of pairings between the neutral stimulus and the unconditioned stimulus
how closely in time the neutral stimulus and unconditioned stimulus are presented
 

the strength of the unconditioned stimulus

the number of times the neutral stimulus is presented in the absence of the unconditioned stimulus
  • Question 10

1 out of 1 points

Which of the following is not a major characteristic of habituation?
Selected Answer: 

Habituation is one of the most rudimentary forms of operant learning and memory

Answers:The decrease in strength of habituated response is large at first then becomes more gradual
The habituated response will return after a period without the unconditioned stimulus being presented
Repeat habituation results in faster habituation on each subsequent exposure
 

Habituation is one of the most rudimentary forms of operant learning and memory

  • Question 1

1 out of 1 points

The presence of trend in baseline measures:
Selected Answer: 

both refers to a systematic rise or decline of the baseline values AND is problematic when the treatment is expected to produce a change in the direction of the trend

Answers:refers to a systematic rise or decline of the baseline values
can be helpful when inferring that an independent variable has produced an effect
is problematic when the treatment is expected to produce a change in the direction of the trend
 

both refers to a systematic rise or decline of the baseline values AND is problematic when the treatment is expected to produce a change in the direction of the trend

  • Question 2

0 out of 1 points

Which of the following would be an example of an abolishing operation (AO) for eating?
Selected Answer: 

Food deprivation

Answers:Food deprivation
 

Smelling rancid meat

A “closed” sign on a restaurant
Putting a lock on the fridge
  • Question 3

1 out of 1 points

A researcher examined the possibility that additional recess time would increase the number of math facts learned over a 1-month period. The procedure tested this hypothesis using a first-grade classroom with extended recess time and a second-grade classroom with regular recess time. In this study, the ages of the students in the study would be considered a:
Selected Answer: 

a confound

Answers:the independent variable
the dependent variable
 

a confound

the research hypothesis
  • Question 4

1 out of 1 points

Functional analysis involves classifying behavior according to _____, and analyzing the environment in terms of _______.
Selected Answer: 

response functions; stimulus functions

Answers: 

response functions; stimulus functions

stimulus functions; attributes
consequences; response functions
attributes; consequences
  • Question 5

1 out of 1 points

In terms of the Stroop effect, behavior analysts point to _____ and _____ as reasons for hesitation.
Selected Answer: 

response competition; history of reinforcement

Answers:response competition; learning
learning; reinforcement
history of reinforcement; memory
 

response competition; history of reinforcement

  • Question 6

1 out of 1 points

A researcher reports that a classroom where students received points that could be exchanged for extra recess time whenever they completed math practice problems saw an average increase of five completed homework problems per child per day compared to baseline. In terms of evaluating the effectiveness of this program, the researcher would most likely focus on:
Selected Answer: 

changes in the level of response

Answers: 

changes in the level of response

changes in the range of variability
changes in immediacy
changes in trend
  • Question 7

1 out of 1 points

In terms of finding an object that is missing or hidden:
Selected Answer: 

both a structural account points to stages of development and object permanence AND a behavioral account points to a particular history of reinforcement

Answers:A behavioral account points to a particular history of reinforcement
 

both a structural account points to stages of development and object permanence AND a behavioral account points to a particular history of reinforcement

the form or structure of behavior is used by behavior analysts to infer mental stages
a structural account points to stages of development and object permanence
  • Question 8

1 out of 1 points

A behavior analytic explanation of improved performance on an eye test by someone who recently explained that vision is important to their work (compared to someone who did not make such a statement) might include all of the following except:
Selected Answer: 

reference to mental-sets

Answers:the individual’s past history of reinforcement
possible motivating operations
possible social reinforcers in the testing context
 

reference to mental-sets

  • Question 9

1 out of 1 points

A researcher examined the possibility that additional recess time would increase the number of math facts learned over a 1-month period. The procedure tested this hypothesis using a first-grade classroom with extended recess time and a second-grade classroom with regular recess time. In this study, the number of math facts learned over 1 month would be considered the:
Selected Answer: 

the dependent variable

Answers:the independent variable
 

the dependent variable

a confound
the research hypothesis
  • Question 10

1 out of 1 points

When stimuli vary physically but have a common effect on behavior they are part of the same _______.
Selected Answer: 

stimulus class

Answers:stimulus response
reinforcement class
 

stimulus class

environment
  • Question 1

1 out of 1 points

A _______ _______ refers to all the topographic forms of the performance that have a similar function.
  • Question 2

1 out of 1 points

One mayor problem is that behavior, once changed, may not return to _______ _______.
  • Question 3

1 out of 1 points

___________ ___________involves classifying behavior according to its response functions and analyzing the environment in terms of stimulus functions.
  • Question 4

0 out of 1 points

The _______ _______ refers to any event that alters the reinforcement effectiveness of behavioral consequences and changes the frequency of behavior maintained by those consequences.
  • Question 5

1 out of 1 points

When the occurrence of an event changes the behavior of an organism, we may say that the event has a _______ _______.
  • Question 6

1 out of 1 points

_______ _______ involves manipulating the independent variable in the same way for each subject in the experiment.
  • Question 7

1 out of 1 points

The _______ _______ is ideally suited to show that specific features of the environment control the behavior of a single organism.
  • Question 8

1 out of 1 points

The central question in all experiments is whether the changes in the dependent variable are uniquely caused by changes in the _______ _______.
  • Question 9

1 out of 1 points

The _______ _______ of behavior is a systematic set of tactics for the exploration of the controlling variables of behavior.
  • Question 10

1 out of 1 points

Those events that increase behavior when presented are called [x], and those that increase behavior when removed are [y].
  • Question 1

0 out of 1 points

Respondent conditioning has occurred when a neutral stimulus is:
Selected Answer: 

paired with a conditioned stimulus

Answers:paired with a conditioned stimulus
 

paired with an unconditioned stimulus

paired with a reflex behavior
paired with a desired behavior
  • Question 2

0 out of 1 points

Behavior analysts recognize the importance of ____________________, but tend to focus more on __________________.
Selected Answer: 

environment; biology

Answers: 

biology; environment

environment; evolution
biology; evolution
environment; biology
  • Question 3

0 out of 1 points

Skinner argued that internal events such as feelings, thoughts, and intentions:
Selected Answer: 

should be ignored

Answers:are unimportant
should be ignored
 

are behaviors that need to be explained

are often causes of our behavior
  • Question 4

1 out of 1 points

A researcher who is interested in the effect of serotonin on an individualâ s engagement in social behavior would be:
Selected Answer: 

focused on immediate causation

Answers: 

focused on immediate causation

focused on remote causation
focused on cultural selection
focused on selection by operant conditioning
  • Question 5

0 out of 1 points

Analysis of behavior becomes experimental when it involves:
Selected Answer: 

a component of learning

Answers:the observation of behavior
the organism changing their behavior
a component of learning
 

the manipulation of a condition to see how behavior is affected

  • Question 6

1 out of 1 points

The context of behavior can be defined as:
Selected Answer: 

both the physiological and environmental conditions that surround a behavior

Answers: 

both the physiological and environmental conditions that surround a behavior

the physiological conditions that surround a behavior
the environmental conditions that surround a behavior
the environmental conditions independent of the physiological conditions, that surround a behavior
  • Question 7

0 out of 1 points

The major difference between rewards/incentives and reinforcement is that:
Selected Answer: 

rewards and incentives, but not reinforcers, should always be money

Answers:rewards and incentives, but not reinforcers, should always be money
rewards and incentives are discussed ahead of time, but reinforcers are not
rewards and incentives are based on past history of reinforcement, but reinforcers are not
 

rewards and incentives do not always increase the future likelihood of a behavior, but a reinforcer always does

  • Question 8

1 out of 1 points

Learning refers to:
Selected Answer: 

all of the above

Answers:the acquisition of behavior
the maintenance of behavior
the change in behavior as a result of events
 

all of the above

  • Question 9

0 out of 1 points

How are thinking and feeling treated from a behavioral perspective?
Selected Answer: 

The cause of overt behavior

Answers: 

More behavior to be explained

The cause of overt behavior
The relationship between the mental and the physical
The mind and its regulation of behavior
  • Question 10

1 out of 1 points

Selection by consequences occurs at three levels. What are these?
Selected Answer: 

Natural selection, behavior selection, and cultural selection

Answers:Artificial selection, culture, and linguistic selection
Natural selection, artificial selection, and cultural selection
 

Natural selection, behavior selection, and cultural selection

Artificial selection, natural selection, and linguistic selection
  • Question 1

1 out of 1 points

The major difference between rewards/incentives and reinforcement is that:
Selected Answer: 

rewards and incentives do not always increase the future likelihood of a behavior, but a reinforcer always does

Answers:rewards and incentives, but not reinforcers, should always be money
rewards and incentives are discussed ahead of time, but reinforcers are not
rewards and incentives are based on past history of reinforcement, but reinforcers are not
 

rewards and incentives do not always increase the future likelihood of a behavior, but a reinforcer always does

  • Question 2

1 out of 1 points

When Whitehead challenged behaviorist B. F. Skinner to address the sentence, â no black scorpion is falling upon this table,â he was making the point of:
Selected Answer: 

the spontaneity of human language that theoretical systems fail to account for

Answers:the predictability of linguistics
the dysfunction present in sentence structure
 

the spontaneity of human language that theoretical systems fail to account for

the inability of behaviorism to help people suffering from speech disorders
  • Question 3

0 out of 1 points

Which of the following is not a difference between Skinner and Watson?
Selected Answer: 

An emphasis on habits in understanding the action of organisms

Answers: 

The rejection of internal events as causes of behavior

A rejection of genetics as an influence on behavior
The inclusion of operant conditioning in understanding behavior
An emphasis on habits in understanding the action of organisms
  • Question 4

1 out of 1 points

Watsonâ s conditioning of Little Albert used ________________ as a neutral stimulus and ________________ as the unconditioned stimulus.
Selected Answer: 

a white rat; the sound of a hammer hitting a rail

Answers:a white rabbit; a blast from an air horn
a fur coat; an electric shock
 

a white rat; the sound of a hammer hitting a rail

a dog; a ringing alarm clock
  • Question 5

0 out of 1 points

Skinnerâ s model of selection by consequences assumes that behavior:
Selected Answer: 

varies across species, but is rigid within a species

Answers: 

naturally varies in form and frequency

typically occurs the same way each time
varies across species, but is rigid within a species
tends to vary only in frequency, not in form
  • Question 6

1 out of 1 points

Selection by consequences occurs at three levels. What are these?
Selected Answer: 

Natural selection, behavior selection, and cultural selection

Answers:Artificial selection, culture, and linguistic selection
Natural selection, artificial selection, and cultural selection
 

Natural selection, behavior selection, and cultural selection

Artificial selection, natural selection, and linguistic selection
  • Question 7

1 out of 1 points

Behavior analysts define culture as:
Selected Answer: 

all the conditions, events, and stimuli arranged by other people that regulate human action

Answers:the ideas and values of a society
traditions passed from one person to another through written or oral communication
 

all the conditions, events, and stimuli arranged by other people that regulate human action

social influences on people that influence how they think, feel, and act
  • Question 8

1 out of 1 points

What does a duckling inherit in terms of imprinting?
Selected Answer: 

The capacity to be reinforced by reducing the distance between itself and a moving object

Answers:The behavior of following its mother
 

The capacity to be reinforced by reducing the distance between itself and a moving object

The behavior of following a â duck-sizedâ object
The capacity to follow its mother as she obtains food in an ecological area
  • Question 9

1 out of 1 points

In operant conditioning, a stimulus that reliably precedes an operant response (SD) is said to:
Selected Answer: 

set the occasion for the response

Answers:elicit the response
reinforce the response
 

set the occasion for the response

punish the response
  • Question 10

1 out of 1 points

The context of behavior can be defined as:
Selected Answer: 

both the physiological and environmental conditions that surround a behavior

Answers: 

both the physiological and environmental conditions that surround a behavior

the physiological conditions that surround a behavior
the environmental conditions that surround a behavior
the environmental conditions independent of the physiological conditions, that surround a behavior
  • Question 1

1 out of 1 points

Skinnerâ s model of selection by consequences assumes that behavior:
Selected Answer: 

naturally varies in form and frequency

Answers: 

naturally varies in form and frequency

typically occurs the same way each time
varies across species, but is rigid within a species
tends to vary only in frequency, not in form
  • Question 2

1 out of 1 points

The behavior of an organism:
Selected Answer: 

is everything an organism does, including thinking and feeling

Answers:focuses only on overt actions that can be measured by an outsider
 

is everything an organism does, including thinking and feeling

is everything an organism does, including biological processes such as digestion
includes the behaviors of organisms around the target organism
  • Question 3

1 out of 1 points

Analysis of behavior becomes experimental when it involves:
Selected Answer: 

the manipulation of a condition to see how behavior is affected

Answers:the observation of behavior
the organism changing their behavior
a component of learning
 

the manipulation of a condition to see how behavior is affected

  • Question 4

1 out of 1 points

Behavior analysts recognize the importance of ____________________, but tend to focus more on __________________.
Selected Answer: 

biology; environment

Answers: 

biology; environment

environment; evolution
biology; evolution
environment; biology
  • Question 5

1 out of 1 points

The idea that successful behaviors will increase in likelihood while unsuccessful behaviors will decrease in likelihood was first described in:
Selected Answer: 

Thorndikeâ s law of effect

Answers:Skinnerâ s idea of selection by consequences
Watsonâ s stimulus-response psychology
Pavlovâ s work on conditional reflexes
 

Thorndikeâ s law of effect

  • Question 6

1 out of 1 points

Watsonâ s conditioning of Little Albert used ________________ as a neutral stimulus and ________________ as the unconditioned stimulus.
Selected Answer: 

a white rat; the sound of a hammer hitting a rail

Answers:a white rabbit; a blast from an air horn
a fur coat; an electric shock
 

a white rat; the sound of a hammer hitting a rail

a dog; a ringing alarm clock
  • Question 7

1 out of 1 points

Which of the following is not a difference between Skinner and Watson?
Selected Answer: 

The rejection of internal events as causes of behavior

Answers: 

The rejection of internal events as causes of behavior

A rejection of genetics as an influence on behavior
The inclusion of operant conditioning in understanding behavior
An emphasis on habits in understanding the action of organisms
  • Question 8

1 out of 1 points

In operant conditioning, a stimulus that reliably precedes an operant response (SD) is said to:
Selected Answer: 

set the occasion for the response

Answers:elicit the response
reinforce the response
 

set the occasion for the response

punish the response
  • Question 9

1 out of 1 points

What does a duckling inherit in terms of imprinting?
Selected Answer: 

The capacity to be reinforced by reducing the distance between itself and a moving object

Answers:The behavior of following its mother
 

The capacity to be reinforced by reducing the distance between itself and a moving object

The behavior of following a â duck-sizedâ object
The capacity to follow its mother as she obtains food in an ecological area
  • Question 10

0 out of 1 points

The major difference between rewards/incentives and reinforcement is that:
Selected Answer: [None Given]
Answers:rewards and incentives, but not reinforcers, should always be money
rewards and incentives are discussed ahead of time, but reinforcers are not
rewards and incentives are based on past history of reinforcement, but reinforcers are not
 

rewards and incentives do not always increase the future likelihood of a behavior, but a reinforcer always does

  • Question 1

1 out of 1 points

The major difference between rewards/incentives and reinforcement is that:
Selected Answer: 

rewards and incentives do not always increase the future likelihood of a behavior, but a reinforcer always does

Answers:rewards and incentives, but not reinforcers, should always be money
rewards and incentives are discussed ahead of time, but reinforcers are not
rewards and incentives are based on past history of reinforcement, but reinforcers are not
 

rewards and incentives do not always increase the future likelihood of a behavior, but a reinforcer always does

  • Question 2

1 out of 1 points

The experimental analysis of behavior is ________.
Selected Answer: 

all of these

Answers:concerned with controlling and changing factors that affect behavior
a natural-science approach to understanding behavior regulation
concerned with the principle of reinforcement
 

all of these

  • Question 3

1 out of 1 points

_______ is the alteration (or maintenance) of an organismâ s behavior due to ________.
Selected Answer: 

learning; lifetime events

Answers:behavior; causes
 

learning; lifetime events

culture; social norms
evolution; genes
  • Question 4

0 out of 1 points

The neural basis of reward most closely involves:
Selected Answer: 

serotonin; dopamine; endogenous opiates

Answers:serotonin; dopamine
 

dopamine; endogenous opiates

serotonin; endogenous opiates
serotonin; dopamine; endogenous opiates
  • Question 5

0 out of 1 points

Respondent conditioning has occurred when a neutral stimulus is:
Selected Answer: 

paired with a desired behavior

Answers:paired with a conditioned stimulus
 

paired with an unconditioned stimulus

paired with a reflex behavior
paired with a desired behavior
  • Question 6

0 out of 1 points

The principle of discrimination:
Selected Answer: 

states that an organism will respond differently when with different organisms

Answers: 

states that an organism will respond differently in two situations

states that an organism will respond the same in the same situation
states that an organism will respond differently in the same situation
states that an organism will respond differently when with different organisms
  • Question 7

1 out of 1 points

A researcher who is interested in the effect of serotonin on an individualâ s engagement in social behavior would be:
Selected Answer: 

focused on immediate causation

Answers: 

focused on immediate causation

focused on remote causation
focused on cultural selection
focused on selection by operant conditioning
  • Question 8

1 out of 1 points

When Whitehead challenged behaviorist B. F. Skinner to address the sentence, â no black scorpion is falling upon this table,â he was making the point of:
Selected Answer: 

the spontaneity of human language that theoretical systems fail to account for

Answers:the predictability of linguistics
the dysfunction present in sentence structure
 

the spontaneity of human language that theoretical systems fail to account for

the inability of behaviorism to help people suffering from speech disorders
  • Question 9

1 out of 1 points

Learning refers to:
Selected Answer: 

all of the above

Answers:the acquisition of behavior
the maintenance of behavior
the change in behavior as a result of events
 

all of the above

  • Question 10

1 out of 1 points

Behavior analysis seeks to:
Selected Answer: 

define the principle and rules of behavior, apply them across species, and develop behavior management techniques

Answers:explain behavior and develop behavior management techniques for humans
define the principles and rules of behavior
work with already defined principles and rules of behavior, apply them across species, and develop behavior management techniques
 

define the principle and rules of behavior, apply them across species, and develop behavior management techniques

  • Question 1

1 out of 1 points

The principle of discrimination:
Selected Answer: 

states that an organism will respond differently in two situations

Answers: 

states that an organism will respond differently in two situations

states that an organism will respond the same in the same situation
states that an organism will respond differently in the same situation
states that an organism will respond differently when with different organisms
  • Question 2

1 out of 1 points

Learning refers to:
Selected Answer: 

all of the above

Answers:the acquisition of behavior
the maintenance of behavior
the change in behavior as a result of events
 

all of the above

  • Question 3

1 out of 1 points

The behavior of an organism:
Selected Answer: 

is everything an organism does, including thinking and feeling

Answers:focuses only on overt actions that can be measured by an outsider
 

is everything an organism does, including thinking and feeling

is everything an organism does, including biological processes such as digestion
includes the behaviors of organisms around the target organism
  • Question 4

1 out of 1 points

Which of the following statements is true of Pavlov and his contributions?
Selected Answer: 

All of these

Answers:He won the Nobel Prize
He investigated the salivary reflex
He discovered the conditioned or conditional reflex
 

All of these

  • Question 5

1 out of 1 points

_______ is the alteration (or maintenance) of an organismâ s behavior due to ________.
Selected Answer: 

learning; lifetime events

Answers:behavior; causes
 

learning; lifetime events

culture; social norms
evolution; genes
  • Question 6

1 out of 1 points

Behavior analysts define culture as:
Selected Answer: 

all the conditions, events, and stimuli arranged by other people that regulate human action

Answers:the ideas and values of a society
traditions passed from one person to another through written or oral communication
 

all the conditions, events, and stimuli arranged by other people that regulate human action

social influences on people that influence how they think, feel, and act
  • Question 7

1 out of 1 points

Which of the following is not an example of respondent conditioning?
Selected Answer: 

A baby smiling at its parent after having been picked up for smiling in the past

Answers: 

A baby smiling at its parent after having been picked up for smiling in the past

Feeling anxious any time you hear the music from a scary movie
Flinching slightly when the nurse tells you that they are about to give you a shot
Feeling excited whenever you smell your significant otherâ s cologne/perfume
  • Question 8

1 out of 1 points

The experimental analysis of behavior is ________.
Selected Answer: 

all of these

Answers:concerned with controlling and changing factors that affect behavior
a natural-science approach to understanding behavior regulation
concerned with the principle of reinforcement
 

all of these

  • Question 9

1 out of 1 points

What does a duckling inherit in terms of imprinting?
Selected Answer: 

The capacity to be reinforced by reducing the distance between itself and a moving object

Answers:The behavior of following its mother
 

The capacity to be reinforced by reducing the distance between itself and a moving object

The behavior of following a â duck-sizedâ object
The capacity to follow its mother as she obtains food in an ecological area
  • Question 10

1 out of 1 points

Which of the following is not a difference between Skinner and Watson?
Selected Answer: 

The rejection of internal events as causes of behavior

Answers: 

The rejection of internal events as causes of behavior

A rejection of genetics as an influence on behavior
The inclusion of operant conditioning in understanding behavior
An emphasis on habits in understanding the action of organisms
  • Question 1

1 out of 1 points

What does a duckling inherit in terms of imprinting?
Selected Answer: 

The capacity to be reinforced by reducing the distance between itself and a moving object

Answers:The behavior of following its mother
 

The capacity to be reinforced by reducing the distance between itself and a moving object

The behavior of following a â duck-sizedâ object
The capacity to follow its mother as she obtains food in an ecological area
  • Question 2

1 out of 1 points

Which of the following is not an example of respondent conditioning?
Selected Answer: 

A baby smiling at its parent after having been picked up for smiling in the past

Answers: 

A baby smiling at its parent after having been picked up for smiling in the past

Feeling anxious any time you hear the music from a scary movie
Flinching slightly when the nurse tells you that they are about to give you a shot
Feeling excited whenever you smell your significant otherâ s cologne/perfume
  • Question 3

0 out of 1 points

The major difference between rewards/incentives and reinforcement is that:
Selected Answer: 

rewards and incentives are discussed ahead of time, but reinforcers are not

Answers:rewards and incentives, but not reinforcers, should always be money
rewards and incentives are discussed ahead of time, but reinforcers are not
rewards and incentives are based on past history of reinforcement, but reinforcers are not
 

rewards and incentives do not always increase the future likelihood of a behavior, but a reinforcer always does

  • Question 4

0 out of 1 points

In operant conditioning, a stimulus that reliably precedes an operant response (SD) is said to:
Selected Answer: 

reinforce the response

Answers:elicit the response
reinforce the response
 

set the occasion for the response

punish the response
  • Question 5

1 out of 1 points

Skinner argued that internal events such as feelings, thoughts, and intentions:
Selected Answer: 

are behaviors that need to be explained

Answers:are unimportant
should be ignored
 

are behaviors that need to be explained

are often causes of our behavior
  • Question 6

0 out of 1 points

Which of the following is not a difference between Skinner and Watson?
Selected Answer: 

The inclusion of operant conditioning in understanding behavior

Answers: 

The rejection of internal events as causes of behavior

A rejection of genetics as an influence on behavior
The inclusion of operant conditioning in understanding behavior
An emphasis on habits in understanding the action of organisms
  • Question 7

0 out of 1 points

The neural basis of reward most closely involves:
Selected Answer: 

serotonin; dopamine

Answers:serotonin; dopamine
 

dopamine; endogenous opiates

serotonin; endogenous opiates
serotonin; dopamine; endogenous opiates
  • Question 8

0 out of 1 points

A researcher who is interested in the effect of serotonin on an individualâ s engagement in social behavior would be:
Selected Answer: 

focused on cultural selection

Answers: 

focused on immediate causation

focused on remote causation
focused on cultural selection
focused on selection by operant conditioning
  • Question 9

0 out of 1 points

Watsonâ s conditioning of Little Albert used ________________ as a neutral stimulus and ________________ as the unconditioned stimulus.
Selected Answer: 

a white rabbit; a blast from an air horn

Answers:a white rabbit; a blast from an air horn
a fur coat; an electric shock
 

a white rat; the sound of a hammer hitting a rail

a dog; a ringing alarm clock
  • Question 10

1 out of 1 points

A _______ is behavior that is elicited by a biologically relevant stimulus while a/an ______ is behavior controlled by its consequences.
Selected Answer: 

reflex; operant

Answers:reflex; respondent
 

reflex; operant

respondent; voluntary
operant; respondent
  • Question 1

0.5 out of 1 points

During [x], an organism emits operant behavior based upon its genetic endowment; the [y] produces and effect that increases or decreases the frequency of the response in a given situation.
  • Question 2

1 out of 1 points

Overall, _____________ is operant behavior (mostly verbal) controlled by its consequences.
  • Question 3

1 out of 1 points

Although Skinner recognized the importance of ______________ for teaching people with learning disabilities, he claimed that the same technology could be used to improve our general educational system.
  • Question 4

1 out of 1 points

Although feelings and behavior necessarily go together, it is the ___________________ that determines how we act, and at the same time how we feel.
  • Question 5

1 out of 1 points

A reflex involves respondent behavior that is _____________ by a biologically relevant stimulus.
  • Question 6

1 out of 1 points

___________________ states that all behavior is due to the complex interaction between genetic influence and environmental experience.
  • Question 7

1 out of 1 points

Behavior Analysts have emphasized [x] and selection by consequence, but are also interested in [y] of physiological and neurochemical process.
  • Question 8

1 out of 1 points

The customs or practices of a __________ are therefore maintained through the social conditioning of individual behavior.
  • Question 9

1 out of 1 points

Behavior is a product of the organism’s past and current interaction with the [x] , as well as its biological or [y] history.
  • Question 10

1 out of 1 points

Cognitions could explain behavior if the existence of thought ____________ were based on some evidence other than behavior.